Criminal Justice

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A cncerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States is known as

the homeland security movement

According to the conflict model, wghat is deemed criminal activity is determined by

he most politically powerful segment of society

All of the following are considered psychoactive drugs, with the exception of

alcohol

DNA evidence can be retrieved from all of the folloing except

fingerprints

Discretion in criminal justice is vested in all of the following except

witnesses

Discretion is strongly associated with

the informal justice process

Fire marshals, alcohol beverage control officers, and fish,game and watercraft wardens are all ____ level law enforcement personnel.

state

High-tech crimes include

cyberstalking

How many independent judicial systems are in the United States?

two

How many people are killed by gunfire each year in the U.S.?

30,000

The dual coute system

refers to federal and state court systems

The concepts of public order crimes is linked to the

concensus model

The ____ model represents an obstacle course rather than an assembly-line.

due process

Public order crime is sometimes refered to as

victimless crime

Prisons are administered by

counties

Illegal gambling, prostitution, racketeering, and exortion are all examples of

organized crime

The due process model

protects individuals from the power of the state

The explosion in violent crimes in the late 1980's was attributed to the widespread sale and use of

crack cocaine

The fourth and largest layer of the wedding cake model of the criminal justie system is comprised of

misdemeanors

The taking of personal property from another through the use of force or fear is

robbery

The text refers to the judge, prosecutors, and defense attorneys in a criminal court as the court's

work group

Trial by jury is relatively rare, only about ___ of those arrested for felonies go to trial.

5%

Violent crimes include all of the following except

burglary

Which model assumes that a diverse group of people can share the same morals?

concensus model

Which of the following hold those convicted of minor crimes with relatively short sentences

jail

All of the following are true according to Beccaria, except that

punishment must be designed to diagnose and treat the underlying causes of criminal behavior

An explanation of a happening or circumstance based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning is a

theory

Biochemical explanation of misbehavior include all of the following except

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Classical theorists believe that a crime was an expression of a person's

rational decision making process

For the positivist, behavior is

beyond the control of the individual

Gottfredson and Hirschi believe that low self-control can be primarily attributed to

poor parenting

In Bentham's classical criminology, punishment aims to

give an incentive not to harm people

Labeling an individual

affects one's self concept

The idea that certain people are more likely to be victims of a crime that others is called

repeat victimization

The belief that illegal drug abusers are a danger to society and should be punished accordingly is consistent with

the criminal model of addiction

The Chicago School showed a correlation between crime and

neighborhood conditions

Strain theory has its roots in the concept of

anomie

Social conflict theory includes

issues of power and wealth

Social conflict theory focuses on

power

Routine activities theory includes all of the following elements except

repeat victimization

Reseachers who study the causes of crime are called

criminologists

Rational choice theory is an updated version of

classical theory

Practitioners of life course criminology assert that the strongest predictors of future criminal behavior can be found by evaulating

childhood behaviors

The research published in Delinquency in a Birth Cohort asserted that ____ of juvenile offenders were responsible for the majority of violent crime

6%

Theories are based on all of the following except

common sense

To understand the basics of addiction and physical dependence, one must understand the role of

dopamine in the brain

The theory that people adapt to the value of the subculture to which they belong is

cultural deviance theory

When considering the relationship between drugs and crime, the systemic model asserts that

violence is a by-product of the interpersonal relationships within the drug-using community

Which model holds that substance abusers are forced into petty crime to feed their addictions?

medical

Which of the following is a social process theory?

Labeling theory

A term used to describe the actual amount of crime that takes place is

the dark figure of crime

An offense which is said to go against"natural law" is referred to as

Mala in se

approximately what percentage of all murders involve a male victim and a male perpetrator?

65

Civil law involves all of the folloowing except

beyond a reasonable doubt

Civil law in concerned with disputes between entities and

private individuals

Data for the NCVS is collected by

the census bureau

Flaws in the UCR cited in the text include all of the following except

lack of political support

In the UCR, the FBI presents crime data in all of the following ways except

in rank order by occurrence

Which of the following is an advantage of the NCVS?

it represents victimization rates, including those crimes not reported to the police

Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons for the high rate of offending by adolescent populations?

poverty

Which group are the most likely to be victims of homocide?

African Americans

Whih decade has been referred to as the "golden era" of low crime rates?

1990's

The strongest statisticl determinant of criminal behavior appears to be

age

The majority of Part I offenses committed in the U.S. are

property crimes

The crime spike in the 1980's and early 1990's is thought by some to be related to the introduction of which illegal drug?

crack

The acronym NIBRS stands for

National Incident-Based Reporting System

The Uniform Crime Reports include

the number of crimes cleared

The Model Penal Code provides for ___ degrees of felony.

four

Since 2000 crime rates nationwide, in the U.S. are

relatively flat

Self-reported surveys collect crime data from

offenders

Self-report survey data are collected by all of the listed except

the census

Proof of guilt in a criminal case requires

proof beyond a reasonable doubt

Part II offenses include

all crimes recorded by the FBI that do not fall into the Part I category

Part II offenses do not include

arson

Which of the following would be considered a mala prohibita offense?

bigamy

Lex talionis is the concep of

retribution

Mens rea may be categorized as

purposeful, knowing, negligent, or reckless

A wrongful mental state is known as _______

mens rea

Alcohol intoxication can be used as a defense when

it is involuntary

All of the following are requirements for the defense of duress, except

the threat must be induced by a public official

Hate crime laws make a person's _____ an important attendant circumstance to his or her criminal act.

motive

In criminal law, _______ prevents unfair practices such as forced confessions, denial od counsel, or unreasonable searches.

procedural due process

The model penal code sets forth

general principles of criminal responsibility

The legal function of the law is to

protect and punish

The ____ amendment requires states to adhere to the Bill of Rights.

fourteenth

The____amendment provides that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.

5th

The ____ amendment contains the prohibition against double jeopardy.

5th

The ____ amendment protects against double jeopardy.

5th

The M'Naughten rule is

a test for measuring sanity

Statutory law includes all of the following except

case law

Public backlash against the insanity defense led to enacting

"guilty but mentally ill" statutes

One of the earlist known examples of written law was

the Code of Hammurabi

Many states use the concept of _______ to impose harsher penalties on certain crimes.

attendant circumstances

The purpose of the social function of law is to

reflect values and norms of society

The rules, orders, and decisions of regulatory agencies are known as

administrative law

Ultimately, it is the _________ which determines whether an individual's due process has been violated

United States Supreme Court

Unlawful pressure brought to bear on a person, causing the person to perform an act that he or she would not otherwise perform is_______

duress

Which of the following is not a justification defense?

involuntary intoxication

Which of the following is nor one of the functions of criminal law?

rehabilitate criminal offenders

_________ makes it possible to convict a person of a crime he or she did not actually commit.

accomplice liability

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