the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (The I-Knew-It-All-Along Phenomenon)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. (ASK ?'s, WHY and HOW are things like the way they are?)
a set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study, has to still be proved, may or may not be true but it is a possible answer.
an educated guess, what you think is going to be the outcome of an experiment.
clear, precise definitions and instructions about how to observe and measure concepts and variables so that the experiment can be redone to check for error.
to reproduce exactly; to duplicate; to repeat. Redoing an experiment.
an observation technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
a technique for collecting the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
changes in the order or wording of questions having an effect on an individual's response. Example: (Car Crash) Hit sounds better than Smashed or Totaled.
False Consensus Effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
The whole group in which you are trying to study.
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of being included.
Observing and recording the behavior of an organism in their natural surroundings without interferring.
a statistic representing how closely two variables relate. Example- it can vary from -1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation) to +1 (perfect positive correlation).
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
the perception of a relationship where none exists. Example- Eating sugary foods & Catching a cold.
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
double blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or the placebo.
a fake drug used in the testing of medication, has no effect.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be a true treatment.
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment.
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment.
Assigning research participants to experimental and control conditions by chance.
The variable whose effect is being tested.
the outcome variable, what happens as a result of independent variable.
Most frequent in a set of numbers.
The average of a set of numbers, the sum of all the numbers and then the dividend of the # of numbers in the set.
The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order.
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. Formula: Square Root of the Sum of Deviations (squared)/ the # of scores.
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.