A prolific Austrian composer during the early 1800s who was born within the bourgeois class. He wrote hundreds of pieces within only 15 years of composing, most of which were written for "living room playing". He often toke poems and turned them into songs. Historically significant for being pivotal in music's movement to a privatized social oriented art form.
A term refering to imitation, depiction, and embracing of the exotic, erotic, and violent East during the late 18th to early/mid 19th century. European art moved towards painting things under this classification during the 19th century. Included famous painters like Jean-Leon Gerome, who often painted very provocative and controversial pieces. Historically significant because it reflected an interest in the world outside their own, and was a major artistic movement of its time.
A French chemist during the mid to late 1800s who made many breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. He figured out that bacteria is what caused illness and identified the bacteria of the plague and cholera, diseases that rocked the population of the times. Also launched a series of vaccination campaigns. Historically significant because his discoveries had big influence of mortality rates and safeness in his time (and decades after).
The Descent of Man
A book written by Charles Darwin, an English naturalist, in 1871. It is a book on evolutionary theory that follows up his book On the Origin of Species, from which he takes its theories on natural selection of animals and applies it to human evolution. The book said that both humans and apes descended from a common ancestor. Highly controversial. Historically significant for its revolutionary theory, its controversy, and for fueling European Exceptionalism that led to Imperialism
A term used to take Charles Darwin's theories of natural selection and turn against social culture to fuel racial and social superiority. Spurred Anglo-Saxon superiority and eugenics, phrenology and genetic inferiority movements and sentiments
A man made waterway in Egypt that connects the Mediterranean and Red Sea for quicker passageway and Imperialism efforts. Built by the French in 1869 so that they wouldn't have to travel all the way around Africa to reach the Vietnam area. Historically significant for fueling imperial momentum and for becoming a high conflict area between major powers of Europe who all wanted to control it.
King Leopold II
King of Belgium during the late 1800s who laid claim to the African Congo in a series of colonial conquests, creating the "Congo Free State". His colonialism was brutal, as he enslaved the native tribes to extract rubber latex from trees. Historically significant for being the most successful in the "Scramble for Africa" as he grabbed the entire congo river basin before anyone else really even knew what was going on.
A Swedish chemist and engineer during the mid to late 1800s who invented dynamite. He was so horrified by what he had stumbled upon, he sets up the Nobel Peace Prize to try to redeem himself. Historically significant for providing one the main elements (along with poisonous gas, machine guns, etc) that contributed to this idea of an "unfeasible horrifying war"
Congress of Berlin
A meeting of the major European powers in 1884 to decide how to divide up Africa amongst European colonies. Often broken
A Russian military revolt in 1917 against Tsar Nicholas II, who was a weak, tyrannical ruler. Led by Alexander Kerensky who takes over parliament and tries to enact a liberal democratic regime. Historically significant for starting what became a constant struggle for a strong Russian government and leadership, which gave way to the October Revolution and Russian civil war and led to the USSR.
A communist Russian revolutionary who led the October Revolution of 1917. He recruited angry Kerensky followers, advocating "real" socialism. Promises peace, land, and bread. As Kerensky support died out, the peace, land, bread program remained strong letting Lenin gain enough power to promote a revolution with a slogan "all power to the soviets". historically significant for establishing Leninism, the russian adaptation of traditional german marxism. Violent revolution.
A Polish Jewish theorist who attempted a socialist revolt in Berlin Germany in 1919.
Archduke of Austria during the late 1800s to early 1900s. He was assassinated in Sarajevo Bosnia in 1914 by Serbian student Gavrilo Princep, which spawned Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. Entangled alliances brings Russia into the mix, as they consider themselves protectors of Serbia. Germany gets involved through alliances with A-H and gets at Russia by attacking their allies, the French. Attack French through Belgium which has alliances with Great Britain, getting them involved. So in essence it is historically significant because it kick-starts a series of events that starts World War One.
Germany's plan to deal with a two front war. Attack France through Belgium, then sweep around and move to the east to attack Russia. Failed. Belgium was surprisingly resistant, giving Russia enough time to mobilize and detract German troops from west over to the east. Then trench warfare stalemate on the west side and constant fighting and failures on the east. Bad leadership also contributed
Battle of the Somme
One of main battles of the trench warfare in 1916 of World War One. The British went over the top and into no man's land to push on the enemy German trenches. They faced machine guns and heavy artillery, and over 20,000 British soldiers were killed.
A neutral ocean linear with a wide range of ethnic passengers (including americans) that was torpedoed and sunk by a German Uboat in 1915. Historically significant because it turned public opinion in many of those countries who had passenger's aboard against Germany. The United States responded to this public opinion and used this event as an excuse to get involved in the war.
A term referring to 19th and 20th century belief that an individual establishes oneself through what they do. Idea was invented by Sartre. Focused on peoples emotions, actions, responsibilities, and thoughts, and that the individual is solely responsible for giving his own life meaning. Belief that people were inherently bad. Due to a disenchantment in the wake of WWII.
Simone de Beauvoir
A female French writer during the mid to late 1900s who wrote The Second Sex, a detailed analysis of women's oppression. Historically important for being a foundational inspiration for contemporary feminism, and for stressing the importance of the individual (in this case women) in politics.
A political and economical union of the major European powers formed in 1993 upon the conclusion of the cold war. Historically important for being uniting western Europe under a common umbrella, and for developing a set of European wide elements such as the euro.
the official currency of the European Union adopted in 1995 and entering circulation in 2002. It becomes a form of currency current used in 16 of the 27 EU countries. Important because it was one of the elements that help unite europe and is now the second most circulating currency in the world
The Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. A close associate to Hitler, he designed and administered pro-Hitler and anti-Semitism (as well as anti-homosexual, and others) advertisements, as well as enacted a totalitarian control over German media, art, and information. One of his first acts under his earned title was the Nazi book burning campaign, in which they destroy over 25,000 un-German books. Historically important for promoting a perfecting german alienation of media, and for creating the Big Lie technique that so successfully father's German ideals
a national/religious/politcal movement supporting the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish people after World War 2. Spawned out of the suppression of the Jewish people, and the thousands of refugees without a place to go. The focus quickly turned to the Land of Israel, as it was the historical and religious "Promise Land" of the Jews. Historically significant because the zionist movement is still felt today, with constant struggles over Israel.
during the final stages of World War II, the United States conducted two atomic bombings, the first of which happened in Hiroshima in 1945. Done in a response to Japanese attacks on Pearl Harbor. It is a Japanese sea port, that in actuality was not much of a military region. Historically significant because it was the first city to be inflicted by a nuclear attack, and combined with the bombing of Nagasaki, it ended World War II on the Pacific front.
the political and ideological thoughts of United States Preside Woodrow Wilson, given as a speech to Congress in 1918 and later published. A response to World War I. Promoted an idea of "Peace without Victory", meaning decisions based on fairness not punishment against losers and self gain land grabbing of the victors. Seeks to abolish secret treaties and promote public awareness, seeing them as the main reason for the war. Tried but failed in establishing a league of nations. Wanted to decrease armament and promote self determination of nations.
League of Nations
an intergovernmental organization founded by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and 1920 and the push of Woodrow Wilson. The goal of the organization was to prevent war through collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiations. The onset of World War II showed its failure, and was eventually replaced by the UN.
A polish chemist during the late 1800s and early 1900s who discovered radioactive elements. Historically important for breaking old Newtonian physics and for contributing to a "Age of Anxiety", a period of cultural unrest in the 1920s.
Jewish-Austrian neurologist/psychiatrist during the late 1800s and early 1900s that claimed that humans were inherently irrational, and that one's personality is not equal to their character. Argued that we all were sexually-aggressive pleasure seeking people who had unconscious drives spawning from what he coined the "id" (it), a persons inner irrational dark side. Historically important for contributing to the "Age of Anxiety" that was a period of cultural unrest in the 1920s. His ideas exalted the individual and destroyed communist ideas.
The private army of Benito Mussolini in Italy during the period in between the two world wars (1918-1939). They terrorized Italy and give Mussolini power, as he claims no ownership and claims to stop them. Historically significant for helping to thrust mussolini into power, as he becomes prime minister in 1923.
A young Jewish girl who kept a diary during the period of the Holocaust. Was published in 1947, and was pivotal in bringing to the public the suffering. Created a universal sympathy for the victims of the times and has been one the world's widest read books.
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the mid 1900s who is known for his appeasement of Adolf Hitler, during his expansion effects into Czechoslovakia and the Rhineland at a meeting that created the Munich Agreement. He claimed to restore "Peace in Out Time" but was really giving Hitler enough wiggle room to build his empire and start the road to WWII.
Considered "The architect of the Holocaust", he was a Nazi colonel who organized the efforts of mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and concentration camps. After the war he fled to Israel, but was eventually caught, tried, and executed. Historically significant for being the first to be tried for the horrors of the war.
an anglicized term describing the overwhelmingly fast German army tactic. The German's used a combination of highly mobile infantry and armored tanks to punch a whole through an enemy line and then encircle its ends from within. It was a highly effective method that gave Germany a tremendous advantage in the early years of the war, until the Allies figured out how to stop it (particularly the British in the Battle of El Alamein, Egypt)
The Big Three
After Germany was defeated and the war concluded in 1945, instead of having a big conference to decide the aftermath, the three major powers in the war (US, GB, Russia) meet a Yalta, and work things out. Sent in are Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin (the big 3). Relatively unsuccessful, as it let the Iron Curtain unfold with Soviet Puppet States, which ended up leading to the Cold War
The Iron Curtain
A division line between European west and Russian eastern territories, formed as a result of the Big Three Conferences, and the creation of Soviet Puppet States. It was a line drawn all the way from northern down to southern Europe, and had a main focal point in Berlin. On each side, states developed their own international economic and military alliances. At first is was a ideological boundary, but it soon turned into a physical boundary with the construction of fortified walls. Served as a tension point in Berlin, and soon became the symbol of a Cold War.
an American plan during the mid 1900s that responded to World War Two's destruction by allocating money/loans to European countries involved in the war so that they could rebuild. Named after secretary of state George Marshall
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) A political and military organization created in 1949 consisting of major European powers (non Russian) and US-Canada. Helped support blockaded areas with airlifts.
A military pact created in 1955 subscribed to by communist states in eastern Europe.
The last head of state of the USSR, serving from 1988 until its collapse in 1991. Attempted to reform the USSR by maintaining all the good parts of soviet communism but obtain a more open society. He essentially failed in that effort but his reforms did lead to the reorientation of soviet strategic aims that contributed the the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War
A wall built by Soviet-Germans erected in 1961 that completely enclosed the city of West Berlin, separating it from east berlin. It is said to have been authorized by Nikita Khrushchev, a soviet politician. Berlin as a result was sectorized into 4 international parts (US, French, British, Soviet). Done to prevent refugees from fleeing the soviet block of East Berlin to the American block of West Berlin. The Berlin Wall is historically significant because its construction was not only the first step in the Soviet blockade of West Berlin that would only end after an extended standoff between the Americans and the Soviets but this action is seen as one of the beginning antagonistic actions of the Cold War that took place between the liberal democracies of the West and the Soviet states in the East which only ended in 1991 after the breakup of the Soviet Union.
WWI: 1914-1918, WWII: 1939-1945, Cold War: 1947-1991