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Atom

Basic unit of matter

Nucleus

Protons and neutrons binded together by strong forces

Electron

negative charged particle

Chemical Element

A pure substance that consists entirely of one atom

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element, that differ in the # of nuetrons

Chemical Compounds

Substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.

Ionic bond

When electrons are transferred

Covalent Bond

When electrons are shared

ions

Positive and negative charged atoms

molecule

Smallest unit of most compounds

van der waals forces

When molecules are close together and attract

Cohesion

An attraction of molecules of the same substance

Adhesion

An attraction of molecules of different substances

Mixture

Physically mixed together, but not chemically

Solution

mixture of substances where compounds are evenly distributed

Solute

Substance Dissolved

Solvent

Where the solute dissolves in

Suspensions

Mixture of water and non dissolved material

Ph Scale

Indicates the concentration of H+ ions

Acid

Forms H+ ions

Base

Produces hydroxide ions

Buffers

weak acids/bases reacts with strong acids/bases

Monomers

small units that join together to form polymers

Polymers

Formed by many monomers

Carbohydrates are made of

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Carbohydrates

Main source of energy and structural purposes

Monosaccharides

Single sugar molecules

Polysaccharides

Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides

Lipids are made of

carbon and hydrogen

Lipids

Store energy, biological membrane, and waterproof covering

Nucleic acids contain

Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

Nucleic acids

Are nucleotides and store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information.

Proteins contain

Nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Proteins

Form bones and muscles, help fight diseases, and regulate cell processes.

Amino Acids

Amino group on one end and carboxyl group on the other.

Chemical Reaction

Changes/transforms one set of chemicals into another

Reactants

Elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

Products

Elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

Activation energy

Energy needed to get a reaction started

catalyst

speeds up a chemical reaction

Enzyme

speeds up chemical reaction in a cell.

Substrates

Reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

Why is a water molecule polar?

It has an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

What is a radioactive isotope?

Their nuclei are unstable and break down.

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