Consists of two numbers: 0 & 1. Everything a computer does is broken dowm into series of 0s and 1s
Devices inside the computer that can be flipped between these two states: 1 or 0, on or off
Acts as computer switches by allowing or blocking the flow of electrical current
Electrical switches that are built out of layers of a material called semiconductor.
Any material that can be controlled to either conduct electricity or act as an insulator.
Very small regions of semiconductor material (silicon) that support a huge number of transistors
Chips that contain a CPU
Binary number system/base 2 number system
A number system used by computers to represent all data
Is eight binary digits or bits
An encoding scheme that uses 16 bits instead of eight. Can represent more than 65,000 unique character symbols, enabling it to represent alphabets of all modern languages.
Central processing unit (CPU)
Executes every instruction given to your computer.
the main circuit board that connects all of the electronic components of the system
Technology where there are two or more processors on the same chip , enabling the execution of two sets of instructions at the exact same time
Special memory storage areas built into the CPU, which are the most expensive, fastest memory in your computer
The "ticks" or base time unit, of the system clock. Sets the pace by which the computer moves from process to process.
the steady and constant pace at which a computer goes through machine cycles, measured in hertz (Hz)
A component that controls the switches inside the central processing unit.
Small blocks of memory located directly on and next to the CPU chip that act as holding places for recently or frequently used instructions or data that the CPU accesses the most.
Level 1 cache
a block of memory that is built onto the CPU chip for storage of data or commands that have just been used.
Level 2 cache
is located on the CPU chip, but it is slightly farther away from the CPU, or its on a seperate chip next to the CPU, which will take longer to access.
Level 3 cache
the CPU checks this area for instructions and data after it looks in levels 1 & 2. Before it makes the longer trip to RAM
is binary code for computer instructions.
Arithmetic logic unit
is the part of the CPU designed to perform mathematical operations.
the number of bits a computer can work with at a time.
the time it takes a device to locate data and instructions and make them available to the CPU for processing.