Anatomy and Physiology of Speech

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SKELETAL SYSTEM

Structural components
Bones
Cartilage
Ligaments
Joints

Functions
Support
Protection (organs)
Leverage in movement
Produce blood cells
Storage of minerals (calcium and phosphorus)

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Structural components
Skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle (heart)
Smooth muscle (walls of hollow organs, e.g., stomach)

Functions
Movement
Heat production
Heart production

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Structural components
Brain
Spinal cord
Nerves
Sense organs (eyes, ears, tongue, & sensory receptors in the skin)

Functions
Communication system that detects changes in internal and external body environment and by way of a nerve impulse, responds by producing some effect in muscle or gland

ELEVATION OF BONES

Condyle
Crest
Head
Process
Spine
Tuberosity

CONDYLE- ELEVATION OF BONES

Rounded or knuckle like process

CREST- ELEVATION OF BONES

Prominent Ridge

HEAD: - ELEVATION OF BONES

An enlargement at one end of the bone

PROCESS: - ELEVATION OF BONES

A bony prominence

TUBEROSITY- ELEVATION OF BONES

A large rounded projection

DEPRESSION OF BONES

Fissure
Foramen
Fossa
Groove
Meatus
Sinus
Sulcus

FISSURE - DEPRESSION OF BONE

Cleft or deep groove

FORAMEN - DEPRESSION OF BONE

An opening or perforation in bone or cartilage

FOSSA - DEPRESSION OF BONE

Pit or hollow

MEATUS - DEPRESSION OF BONE

tube or passageway

SINUS -DEPRESSION OF BONE

A cavity within a bone

SULCUS - DEPRESSION OF BONE

A groove

THE SKELETON: AXIAL

Head & trunk

THE SKELETON: APPENDICULAR

Upper and lower limbs

TISSUES

Connective tissues (intercellular, supportive)
Bone or Osseous
Cartilage
Ligaments
Tendons
Blood

Muscular tissues (contractile)
Striated
Smooth
Cardiac

Nervous tissues (communicative)

OSSEOUS/BONE: TISSUE

Connects
Supports
And protects parts of the body
Well supplied by blood vessels

CARTILAGE: TISSUE

3 types:
hyalin: closely packed fibers. firm but flexible. most abundant in the body. found at the costal cartilages of the ribs, cartilage rings of the trachea. Provides body movement with minimum of friction and resistance.

elastic: Fibers not closely packed, external ear, epiglottis, auditory tubes

fibrous: thick bundles found in areas that must withstand heavy pressure. Intervetebral discs, knee joint, hip joint

LIGAMENT: TISSUE

Go from bone to bone or cartilage to cartilage.
Tendons
Muscle to bone or muscle to cartilage
Arthrosis (joint) is where two bones or cartilages meet, they are said to articulate with each other

JOINT

Fibrous: have little or any movement is permitted called synarthrosis, found in the cranial bones where such joints are called sutures.

Cartilaginous: Are not common and usually found at midline. Found in the pubic bone and the vertebral joint.

Synovial: Also called diarthrodial joints. These permit relatively free movement, found in the TMJ

MUSCLE TISSUE

Striated/skeletal
Smooth/nonstriated
Cardiac: combination of striated & nonstriated

Striated - arranged in parallel bundles so that there is a beginning or origin and an end or insertion

Non-striated - form networks that surround tubes such as arteries and the intestinal tract so they narrow the tube when they contract

MUSCLES: CONTINUED

Muscles can be attached to bones, cartilage, skin or other muscles
Muscles are described by identifying its

Origin
Insertion
Direction or course
Action
Nerve supply

NERVE TISSUE

Composed of cells called neurons
Some form the Central Nervous System
Some Connect the brain to the spinal cord
Some stimulate muscles which are called motor/efferent
Nerves carrying sensation such as vision and pain are called sensory/afferent

Efferent (excitatory) vs Afferent (sensory)

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