The accused professor, joined several organizations supported by Communists. At one point he served as president of the U.o.Washington Teacher's Union.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Set up camp with the consent of the college administration, spying on students and faculty, screening the credentials of job or scholarship applicant, and seeking to entice students to report on their friends or roomates.
Why did the Univ. of Washington admin. turn down the recommendation of the Physics Department to hire J. Robert Oppenheimer?
Because he had become a vocal opponent of the arms race and the proliferation of nuclear weapons
The Sercivemen's Readjustment Act (G.I Bill of Rights)
offered stipends covering tuition and living expenses to veterans attending vocational schools or college
By how much did the student population at the Univ. of Washington grow to?
50% over its prewar peak of 10,000
J. Edgar Hoover
testified that the college campuses were centers of "red propaganda," full of teachers "tearing down respect for agencies of gov., belittling tradition and moral custom and...creating doubts in the validity of the American way of life"
erupted into a two-day national holiday of wild celebrations, complete with ticker-tape parades, spontaneous dancing, and kisses for returned G.I.s. Americans, living in the richest and most powerful nation in the world, finally seemed to have gained the peace they had fought and sacrificed to win
Leadbelly (Huddie Ledbetter)
The legendary African American folk singer added a fresh lyric to an old spiritual melody: "We're in the same boat, brother....And if you shake one end you're going to rock the other."
publisher of Time, Life, and Fortune magazines, had forecast the dawn of "the American Century."
capital assets of manufacturing increased __ over prewar levels and were equal in value to approx. half the entire world's goods and services
Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs; "We need markets -- big markets -- in which to buy and sell"
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Work Bank)
to help rebuild war-ton Europe and to assist development in other nations. By stabilizing exchange rates to permit the expansion of international trade, the IMF would deter currency conflicts and trade wars
refused to ratify the agreements that, in essence, allowed the U.S to rebuild the world economy along capitalist lines
Atlantic Charter of 1941
committed the Allies to recognize the right of all nations to self-determination and to renounce all claims to new territories as the spoils of war
What did USSR now control?
Much of eastern Europe, including a large portion of Poland and the little Baltic nations
What did Truman share?
Winston Churchill's hope of rebuilding Germany into a powerful counterforce against the Soviet Union and a strong market for U.S and British goods
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
The Allies worked to shape the United Nations as a world organization that would arbitrate disputes among members as well as impede aggressors, by military force if necessary
U.S, Great Britain, Soviet Union, France, and Nationalist China
served permanently on the Security Council, which had the "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peach and security"
wrote the South Carolina Exposition &Protest / the daddy of nullification. VP in Jackson's 1st term
defended the gov in McCulloch v. Maryland / BIG debate w/ Robert Y. Hayne in Congress / prominent Whig
John Quincy Adams
won Prez. because of the corrupt bargain / Monroe Doctrine his idea, cold and superior attidue (justified), ineffective as Prez
The Great Justice: Federal vs. State Pwer, Sanctity of Contracts, Judicial Review, tried to protect sovereignty of Native Americans
head of the Bank of the U.S, plotted with Clay to get reneal of charter in 1832-plan backfired, vetoed, Jackson won again
expands democracy to include non-property owners; a "people's president" / Pet Banks destroyed Bank of YS / created Spoils System / Specie Circular, caused Panic of 1837 / Trail of Tears
In March 1946, in a speech delivered in Fulton, Missouri, ___________________ declared that " an iron curtain has descended across the European continent." He called directly upon the United States, standing "at this time at the pinnacle of world power," to recognize it's "awe-inspiring accountability to the future" and, in alliance with Great Britain, act aggressively to turn back Soviet expansion.
"us"- versus - "them"
As a doctrine uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies, the "containment" of communism also fostered an ideological opposition, an ___________________ theme that divided the world into "freedom and "slavery," "democracy" and "autocracy," and "tolerance" and "coercive force."
Doctrine pronounced in President Harry Truman's statement in 1947 that the United States should assist other nations that were facing external pressure or internal revolution.
Foreign policy adviser George F. Kennan had sent an 8,000-word _______ ___________ to the State Department insisting that the Soviet fanaticism had cooperation impossible.
Secretary of State George C. Marshall's European Recovery Plan of June 5, 1947, committing the united States to help in the rebuilding of post-WWII Europe.
General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Reduced commercial barriers among member nations and opened all to U.S. trade and investment.
"two halves of the same walnut"
President Truman readily acknowledged that the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine were __________________________.
Three-hundred-day Soviet blockade of land access to United States, British, and French occupation zones in Berlin.
With help from the Royal Air force, the United States began an around-the-clock airlift of historic proportions that delivered nearly 2 million tons of supplies to West Berliners.
The ________ __________ made a U.S.-led military alliance against the USSR attractive to western European nations.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
In April 1949 ten European nations, Canada, and United States formed the _____________, a mutual defense pact in which "an armed attack against one or more of them... shall be considered an attack against them all." Complemented the Marshall Plan, strengthening economic ties among the member nations by keeping "the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down." It also deepened divisions between eastern and western Europe, making a permanent military mobilization on both sides almost inevitable.
Robert A. Taft
Warned that the United States could not afford to police all Europe without sidetracking domestic policies and undercutting the UN.
The United States began to build atomic stockpiles and to conduct tests on the __________ __________ in the Pacific.
Harold C. Urey
Nobel Prize-winning scientist that said" There is only one thing worse than one nation having the atomic bomb, that's two nations having it."
"Give' em Hell" Harry
Pressed to establish his own political identity, ______________ __________ successfully portrayed himself as a fierce fighter against all challengers, yet loyal to Roosevelt's legacy.
"To err is Truman"
The responsibilities of reestablishing peacetime conditions seemed to overwhelm the new president's administration. Critics jeered ________________.
Council of Economic Advisors
The Employment Act of 1946 created a new executive body, the _____________ of ______________ ____________, which would confer with the president and formulate policies for maintaining employment, production, and purchasing power. But the measure did not include funding mechanisms to guarantee full employment, thus falling far short of the bill's intent.
The Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947, better known as the ________ __________ ______, brought to an end the closed shop, the secondary boycott, and the use of union dues for political activities. It also mandated an eighty-day cooling-off period in the case of strikes affecting national safety or health. Furthermore, it required all union officials to swear under oath that they were not Communists- a cold war mandate that abridged freedoms ordinarily guaranteed by the First Amendment.
Truman fired the Secretary of Commerce, __________ ____________, for advocating a more conciliatory policy toward the Soviet Union.
At the Democrat Party convention, they endorsed a civil rights platform, proposed by liberal Minneapolis mayor __________ __________, that called on Congress to "wipe out discrimination."
Souther Democrats endorsed the States' rights ("_________") ticket, headed y Governor J. Strom Thurmond of south Carolina' known for his racist views.