Molecular Shapes Test

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What type of hybrid orbital exists in the methane molecule?

sp³

A covalent bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared

single covalent bond

a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared

double covalent bond

a covalent bond in which the shared electron pair comes from only one of the atoms

coordinate covalent bond

a covalent bond between two atoms of significantly different electronegativities

polar bond

a depiction of the arrangement of atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

Structural Formula

a type of intermolecular force that is very important in determining the properties of water and of important biological molecules such as proteins and DNA

hydrogen bond

A bond formed between a silicon atom and an oxygen atom is likely to be ____.

polar covalent

A bond that is not symmetrical along the axis between two atomic nuclei is a(n) ____.

pi bond

A molecule with a single covalent bond is ____.

Cl₂

According to VSEPR theory, molecules adjust their shapes to keep which of the following as far apart as possible?

pairs of valence electrons

How do atoms achieve noble-gas electron configurations in single covalent bonds?

Two atoms share two electrons

How is a pair of molecular orbitals formed?

By the overlap of two atomic orbitals from different atoms

How many electrons can occupy a single molecular orbital?

2

How many valid electron dot formulas—having the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion—can be written when a resonance structure occurs?

0

In which of the following compounds is the octet expanded to include 12 electrons?

SF₄

Once formed, how are coordinate covalent bonds different from other covalent bonds?

There is no difference.

The shape of the methane molecule (CH4) is called ____.

tetrahedral

What are the weakest attractions between molecules?

Van der Waals forces

What causes dipole interactions?

attraction between polar moecules

What causes hydrogen bonding?

bonding of a covalently bonded hydrogen atom with an unshared electron pair

What causes water molecules to have a bent shape, according to VSEPR theory?

repulsive forces between unshared pairs of electrons

What is required in order to melt a network solid?

breaking covalent bonds

What is shown by the structural formula of a molecule or polyatomic ion?

the arrangement of bonded atoms

What is the shape of a molecule with a triple bond?

linear

What is thought to cause the dispersion forces?

the constant motion of electrons

What type of hybrid orbital exists in the methane molecule?

sp3

When one atom contributes both bonding electrons in a single covalent bond, the bond is called a/an _______________________.

coordinate covalent bond

When placed between oppositely charged metal plates, the region of a water molecule attracted to the negative plate is the ____.

hydrogen region of the molecule

Where are the electrons most probably located in a molecular bonding orbital?

between the two atomic nuclei

Which elements can form diatomic molecules joined by a single covalent bond?

hydrogen and the halogens only

Which is a typical characteristic of an ionic compound?

the ionic compound has a high melting point

Which noble gas has the same electron configuration as the oxygen atom in a water molecule (once it is sharing electrons with the two hydrogen atoms)?

neon

Which of the following atoms acquires the most negative charge in a covalent bond with hydrogen?

Na
S
O
C

O

Which bond types is normally the weakest?

pi bond formed by the overlap of two p orbitals

Which of the following bonds is the least reactive?

H—Cl
O—H
C—C
H—H

H-H

Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar?

H—F
H—H
H—N
H—C

H-F

Which of the following diatomic molecules is joined by a double covalent bond?

Cl₂
H₂
O₂
N₂

O₂

What electron configuration gives the correct arrangement of the four valence electrons of the carbon atom in the molecule methane (CH⁴)?

2s¹ 2p³

What element can form diatomic molecules held together by triple covalent bonds?

Nitrogen

Which of the following is the name given to the pairs of valence electrons that do not participate in bonding in diatomic oxygen molecules?

unshared pair

Which of the forces of molecular attraction is the weakest?

dispersion

Which of these elements does not exist as a diatomic molecule?

H, F, I, Ne

Ne

Which type of solid has the highest melting point?

network solid

Why do atoms share electrons in covalent bonds?

to attain a noble-gas electron configuration

Why is hydrogen bonding only possible with hydrogen?

Hydrogen is the only reactive element that does not have "non-valence" or "inner core" electrons shielding its nucleus.

How many covalent bonds are in a covalently bonded molecule containing 1 phosphorus atom and 3 chlorine atoms?

3

How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?

4

How many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond?

2

How many electrons does a nitrogen atom need to gain in order to attain a noble-gas electron configuration?

3

How many electrons does carbon need to gain in order to obtain a noble-gas electron configuration?

4

How many unshared pairs of electrons are in a molecule of hydrogen iodide?

3

How many unshared pairs of electrons does the nitrogen atom in ammonia possess?

1

How many valence electrons does an iodine atom have?

7

What is the bond angle in a water molecule?

105°

What is the total number of covalent bonds normally associated with a single carbon atom in a compound?

4

Electronegativity is...

the ability of an atom to attract electrons

If d+ were written next to an atom in a structural formula, it means...

the atom has a partial positive charge

Polar molecules tend to...

attract one another

Predict the type of attraction that occurs when potassium joins with chlorine to form the compound KCI.

ionic

The bond angle for a bent molecule is...

105°

The bond angle for a tetrahedral molecule is...

109.5°

The bond angle for a trigonal planer molecule is...

120°

The bond angle for a trigonal pyramidal molecule is...

107°

The hybridization in F₂ is...

there is no hybridization

The predicted geometry for carbon tetrafluoride is...

tetrahedral

The predicted geometry for carbon dioxide is...

linear

The predicted geometry for H₂S is...

bent

The predicted geometry for magnesium chloride is...

linear

Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar?
H—C
H—F
H—H
H—N

H-F

Which of the following molecules will be polar?
HF
CH4
CO2
O2

HF

Which type of bond will typically have the greatest bond length?

single

What type(s) of intermolecular force(s) are present in a methane molecule (CH4)?

disperion forces
+
dipole-dipole forces

Which type of solid contains positively-charged ions engulfed in an electron "sea".

metallic solids

Rank the four types of solids in terms of the realative strength of the attractions between particles (weakest → strongest).

Molecular < Metallic < Ionic < Covalent-network

What is the bond angle for the oxygen difluoride molecule?

≈105º

shapes adjust so valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible

VSEPR theory

energy needed to break a single bond between two covalently bonded atoms

bond dissociation energy

attraction between polar molecules

dipole interaction

molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond

bonding orbital

symmetrical bond along the axis between the two nuclei

sigma bond

crystal in which all the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

network solid

109.5º

tetrahedral angle

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