A patient comes to the clinic concerned about a painless lymph node in the neck. A diagnosis of lymphoma is made. Which of the following would indicate that the lymphoma was Hodgkin lymphoma versus non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
A. The location of the enlarges lymph nodes
B. The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells
C. Spread to the spleen, liver, and bone marrow
D. The age of the patient
Which of the following genes, when mutated, is NOT implicated in the development of neoplasms?
b. Tumor suppressor genes
d. Mutator genes
Which of the following cells is least likely to develop into a neoplasia?
a. Epithelial cell
b. Cardiac myocyte
Which gene has been implicated most frequently in the development of cancer?
a. p53 gene
b. Rb gene
c. T21 gene
d. None of these is implicated in the development of cancer
Which of the following is characteristic of benign neoplasms?
a. Highly undifferentiated
d. Cell overproliferation
Which is the most significant difference between acute lymphocytic and acute myelogenous leukemia?
a. ALL affects adults and AML affects children most often
b. Cell type affected
c. Diagnostic tests used
d. Clinical manifestations
Your grandfather has colon cancer but then it migrates to the liver. The affinity for movement to another specific organ is called:
You are a public health official and want to make the greatest difference in reducing cancer deaths across the globe. Which intervention would have the greatest impact?
a. Smoking cessation programs
b. Routine genetic testing
c. Distribute sunscreen to all adults and children
d. Eliminate unnecessary uses of radiation
What sign/symptom might indicate that you are experiencing a paraneoplastic syndrome?
a. Bone pain
Which type of cancer would most likely spread through the process called seeding?
Chromosomal translocations place an individual at increased risk for cancerous transformations due to chromosomal fragility and potential for genetic mutations.
Why would someone with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) have an increased risk of developing leukemia?
This person would have a limited ability to suppress tumor growth and would have multiple tumor formations.
What would happen to the individual who was born with a germ line mutation of p53?
No! These do not emit ionizing radiation and would have a low likelihood of resulting in cellular injury.
Do you think microwave ovens, electromagnetic fields, and ultrasound, as energy transmitters, would induce cellular injury?
Tumor cells emit lytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix and do not allow reformation or healing of this matrix.
How is delayed wound healing, as a clinical manifestation of cancer, explained by the deregulation of the destruction and regeneration/repair balance of the extracellular matrix during tumor invasion?
Both affect lymphocytes.
How are leukemias and lymphomas similar?
Stem cells assist in the replacement of cells that have undergone necrosis or apoptosis. When the homeostasis of cell division is disrupted and there is a loss of regulated cell division, this results in:
a. The overproliferation of cells
As cells grow and mature, they will typically develop specific characteristics and function. This type of orderly growth process is called:
A type of cell that is highly undifferentiated that has the ability to mature into a differentiated cell with a specific function is called a:
a. Transition cell
b. Progenitor cell
c. Stem cell
d. Proliferation cell
When dividing cells have problems with overproliferation and lack of differentiation, this is called:
a. Epithelial regression
b. Mucosal irritation
d. Stromal deviation
Tyrone, a 5 year old has been diagnosed with a tumor in his brain. His parents are wondering what causes a tumor to form. You tell them that neoplastic growths occur when:
a. There is hypoproliferation of cells
b. There is epithelial regression
c. Daughter cells are highly differentiated
d. There is a loss of the regulatory mechanisms that rule cell behavioir
We know that genetic mutations can play a role in the development of cancer. The three major categories of genes that can lead to cancerous transformations include all of the following except:
b. Tumor suppressor genes
c. Mutator genes
d. Proliferation genes
Tumor suppressor genes plan an active role in stopping overproliferation. The way that tumor suppressor genes manage potential overproliferation is through:
c. Cellular regression
d. Proliferation stasis
Tyrone developed lung cancer from exposure to asbestos. Even after he was no longer exposed to the asbestos, the tumor continues to grow. When Tyrone's tumor no longer requires continued exposure to the cancer promoter (asbestos), this is called:
d. Cell engagement
The long term asbestos exposure ultimately affected Tyrone's lung tissue by causing long-term irritation. In response to this irritation, the cells attempted to adapt (metaplasia and dysplasia). An example of a cancer promoter that causes cellular changes over time is called:
a. Cellular necrosis
Generics play a role in the development of cancer. Often, a single mutated cell is the origin of the cancer. This process where the cancer begins from a single mutated cell is called;
a. Spontaneous mutation
b. Proliferation transformation
c. Mutation neoplasia
d. Monoclonal origin
Cancer causing agents such as radiation are called:
Neoplastic cells cause damage to normal tissue in many ways including all of the following except:
a. Deprive unaffected tissues of oxygen
b. Secrete substances that can alter metabolic processes
c. Deprive healthy cells of nutrients
d. Hypercellular communication
Tyrone's tumor in his lung was identified as malignant. Characteristics that are used to classify a tumor as malignant include all of the following except:
c. High degree of differentiation
d. No resemblance to the tissue of origin
After many rounds of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, it was determined that Tyrone's tumor was no longer treatable. When the treatment or care for cancer is primarily concerned with managing symptoms, this is called:
a. Urgent care
b. Palliative care
c. Nonemergent care
d. Preventive care
The main difference between childhood cancers and adult cancers is:
a. Childhood cancers originate in the mesodermal germ layer
b. Childhood cancers are metastatic in nature
c. Adult cancers are slower growing
d. Adult cancers initiate cellular differentiation