Clearly stated objectives have four characteristics
1. the instructional objective must state the audience for the educational activity.
2. the observable behavior(s) expected of the audience must be identified.
3. the conditions under which the behavior is to be accomplished must be included.
4. the degree to which the behavior is to be completed must be specified.
behavioral objective: audience
Who is the audience for your educational activity? While it may appear the audience is obvious for most instructional activities, a common error may distort or prevent the evaluation of your program. First, one must consider the difference between the target and accessible population/audience. Your target may be all youth between 14 and 16 years of age in Typical County; however, your accessible population may be all 14-16 year old 4-H members who attended the County 4-H Camp. If you write your objective in broad terms and follow proper evaluation procedures, you will be held accountable for the behaviors of youth you never served. Your behavioral objective should identify the specific audience you plan to target.
A second mistake made by many inexperienced educators is to include teacher/trainer activities as a part of the behavioral objective. Consider the following example: "The trainer will demonstrate the proper steps of delivering a prepared speech." In this example, the activities are focused on what the trainer plans to do and not what the target audience will be able to master. Although it has the appearance of being one, the statement is not a behavioral objective because the audience and its performance are not identified. This statement could be made into a behavioral objective by rewording the statement to the following: "Upon completion of the lesson, 100% of the participants will be able to list the steps in delivering a prepared speech." The audience is the workshop participants.
behavioral objective: behavior
Each objective must identify the behavior or the performance the learner is expected to do. A behavioral objective should never include the instructional process or procedure as the behavior. It should always describe the intended results rather than the means of achieving those results.
The performance must be overt or directly observable. Performances that cannot be directly observed or performances that are mental, invisible, cognitive, or internal are considered covert and should never be used as a behavior unless they are included with another indicator (directly observable) behavior. See Figure 1 for specific examples on ways to correctly write behaviors.
Behaviors can be written for one of three "domains of learning." The cognitive domain deals with the acquisition of facts, knowledge, information, or concepts. Psychomotor behaviors use the mind in combination with motor skills (physical activities). Affective behaviors have to do with changes in attitudes, values, aesthetics, and appreciation.
behavioral objective: condition
Each behavioral objective must describe the conditions (if any) under which the performance is to occur. Conditions may include what the learner will be allowed to use, what the learner will be denied, under what conditions the learner is expected to perform the behavior, or specific skills that should be excluded
behavioral objective: degree
Each objective must describe the degree to which the behavior must be performed to constitute an acceptable performance. It is not always necessary or practical to include the degree in an objective; however, the more information included in an objective the better it will communicate the desired outcome. The degree can include criterion such as speed, accuracy, and quality.
Knowledge: remembering of previously learned material; recall (facts or whole theories); bringing to mind.
Comprehension: grasping the meaning of material; interpreting (explaining or summarizing); predicting outcome and effects (estimating future trends).
Application: ability to use learned material in a new situation; apply rules, laws, methods, theories
Analysis: breaking down into parts; understanding organization, clarifying, concluding
Synthesis: ability to put parts together to form a new whole; unique communication; set of abstract relations
Evaluation: ability to judge value for purpose; base on criteria; support judgment with reason. (No guessing).
When implemented properly, cooperative learning can promote achievement superior to traditional teaching methods.
Studies indicate that when teachers use cooperative learning methods with group goals and individual accountability, the students make substantial gains in achievement, beyond the achievement of students taught in traditional lecture-style classes. The subgroups showing the most improvement from these methods were the highest achieving students and special education students.
ADD vs. ADHD
ADD is characterized by children appearing to be more spacey and often daydreaming with less hyper activeness. With ADHD, the child exhibits more hyper activity.
Who is responsible for providing a specialist to evaluate students?
School district. The school faculty or contracted specialists conduct evaluations. If a specialist is not already contracted, the school district must find an appropriate specialist. The school district must pay for the evaluation.
Albert Bandura is...
Noted for his research on self-efficacy. He proposed that that people are likely to engage in activities in which they perceive themselves to be competent.
Between what ages does Piaget's pre-operational stage last?
2 to 7 years of age Piaget suggests that the preschool years fit entirely into a single stage of cognitive development. Language development is a major part of this stage.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Piaget concluded that there were four different stages in the cognitive development of children. The first was the Sensory Motor Stage, which occurs in children from birth to approximately two years. The Pre-operational Stage is next, and this occurs in children aged around two to seven years old. Children aged around seven to eleven or twelve go through the Concrete Operational stage, and adolescents go through the Formal Operations Stage, from the age of around eleven to sixteen or more.
What is a definition of ability grouping?
Ability grouping separates students based on their ability and is the traditional method of grouping students. It may, however, have an adverse emotional impact on students.
is designed and used to help disabled students perform a particular function. (ex. lunch tray with a non-slip bottom)
Spastic cerebral palsy...
causes difficulty initiating voluntary movements, increased muscle tone, and the tightening of the muscles and stiffening of the joints.
What is the most common learning disability?
Difficulty with basic reading and language skills (80%)
learning disorders are separate from...
medical disorders (deafness, autism, etc.) and behavioral disorders.
A language-based disability in which a person has trouble understanding written words. It may also be referred to as reading disability or reading disorder.
A mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.
A writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space.
Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders
Sensory disabilities in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision
Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
A neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative and holistic processing functions.
3-5% of children have ADHD, or approximately 2 million children in the United States. This means that in a classroom of 25 to 30 children, it is likely that at least one will have ADHD.
First described by Dr. Heinrich Hoffman in 1845.
1902 Sir George F. Still published a series of lectures.
-Feeling restless, often fidgeting with hands or feet, or squirming while seated
-Running, climbing, or leaving a seat in situations where sitting or quiet behavior is expected
-Blurting out answers before hearing the whole question
-Having difficulty waiting in line or taking turns.
-Often becoming easily distracted by irrelevant sights and sounds
-Often failing to pay attention to details and making careless mistakes
-Rarely following instructions carefully and completely losing or forgetting things like toys, or pencils, books, and tools needed for a task
-Often skipping from one uncompleted activity to another.
The behaviors must appear early in life, before age 7, and continue for at least 6 months. Above all, the behaviors must create a real handicap in at least two areas of a person's life such as in the schoolroom, on the playground, at home, in the community, or in social settings.
academic achievement standards
the expected performance of students on measures of academic achievement. (AKA "performance standards")
academic content standards
developed by state departments of education to demonstrate what they will expect all students to know and be able to do in the core content areas.
the english language ability required for academic achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. (sometimes referred to as Cognitive/ Academic Language Proficiency CALP)
accommodation (for english language learners)
adapting language (spoken or written) to make it mroe understandable to second language learners. (can refer to presentation, response method, setting, timing).
accommodation (for students with disabilities)
techniques and materials that allow individuals with LDs to complete school or work tasks with greater ease and effectiveness. (spellcheckers, tape recorders, extra time to do assignments)
adequate yearly progress (AYP)
a state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards. minimum level of improvement that states, school districts, and schools must achieve each year
a metaphor that describes a learner's attitudes that affect the relative success of second language acquisition. filters= hindrance (negative feelings like lack of motivation/ confidence, anxiety). associated with stephen krashen's "monitor model" of second language learning
-a bound morpheme (the smallest grammatical unit of speech) that is joined before, after, or within a root or stem.
-prefix (before), suffix (after)
age equivalent score
in a norm-referenced assessment, individual student's scores are reported relative ot those of the norming population. (ex. age: 9-year-old reading at a 13 year-old reading level)
basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words
americans with disabilities act (ADA)
a federal law that gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion. Guarantees equal opportunity for individuals in public accommodations, employment, transportation, government servies, and telecommunications.
students are taught to use parts of words they have already learned to read and decode words they don't know. (ex. reading screen by analogy to green)
students learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. they do not pronounced sounds in isolation.
annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO)
AMAO requirements include reporting on three things:
1. annual increases in the number/ percentage of children making process in learning English
2. annual increases in number/ percentage of children attaining English proficiency.
3. English language learning children making AYP
equipment that enhances the ability of students and employees to be more efficient and successful.
ability to attend to one sounds against a background of sounds (e.g. a teacher's voice against class room noise)
auditory processing disorder (APD)
inability to accurately process and interpret sound information. people with APD often do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in words.
uses multiple forms of evaluation that reflect student learning, achievement, motivation and attitudes on classroom activities. (ex. performance assessment, portfolios, student assessment).
general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention ,effort, or conscious awareness.
basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS)
"Playground/ Survival English." Basic language ability required for face-to-face communication in a situational context.
behavior intervention plan (BIP)
a plan that includes positive strategies, program modifications, and supplementary aids and supports that address a student's disruptive behaviors and allows the child to be education in the least restrictive environment (LRE).
ed program in which two languages are used to provide content matter instruction. Over time the native language in decreased until only English is used.
ability to effectively communication ro understand written thoughts and ideas through the grammatical systems, vocabularies, and written symbols of two different languages.
a consonant sequence before or after a vowel within a syllable, such as cl, br, or st. the written language equivalent of a consonant cluster.
center for applied linguistics (CAL)
a private, non-profit org consisting of a group of a scholars and educators who use the findings of linguistics to identify and address language-related problems.
central auditory processing disorder (CAPD)
occurs when the ear and the brain do not coordinate fully. is a physical hearing impairment, but does not show up as a hearing loss on routine screenings or an audiogram. affects the hearing system beyond the ear
a reading comprehension exercise in which words have been omitted in a systematic fashion. indicators of whether the reading level and language level of the text are appropriate for a given student.
cognitive/ academic language proficiency (CALP)
the language ability required for academic achievement in a context-reduced environment. (ex. classroom lectures, textbook reading assignments)
instructional approach in which students work together to plan, draft, revise, and edit compositions
techniques to teach reading comprehension, including summarization, prediction, and inferring word meanings from context
comprehension strategy instruction
the explicit teaching of techniques that are particularly effective for comprehending text. steps include:
-direct explanation (teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy)
-teacher modeling (teacher demonstrates how to apply strategy)
-guided practice (teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy)
-application (teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently)
a way of teaching systematically in which the teacher continually shows and discusses with the students the relationship between what has been learned, what is being learned, and what will be learned).
academic subjects like math, science, English/ language arts, reading, and social sciences.
sources of information outside of words that readers may use to predict the identities and meanings of unknown words.
refers to communication that occurs in a context of shared understanding, where there are cues or signals that help to reveal the meaning (e.g. visual clues, gestures, expressions, and specific location)
an element of responsive instruction in which the teacher regularly monitors student performance to determine how closely it matches the instructional goal
a teaching model involving students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks.
designed to determine whether students have mastered specific content, and allow comparison with other students taking the same assessment.
informal assessment in which the procedures directly assess student performance in learning-targeted content in order to make decision about how to better address a student's instructional needs.
the ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences. it is also the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out.
severe language disorder that is presumed to be due to brain injury rather than because of a developmental delay in the normal acquisition of language.
the use of letter-sound relationship information to attempt to write words (aka inverted spelling)
students make entries in a notebook on topics of their choice, to which the teacher responds, modeling effective language but not overtly correcting the student's language
an approach to teaching that includes planning out and executing various approaches to content, process, and product. is used to meet the needs of student differences in readiness, interest, and learning needs.
the ability to effectively navigate, evaluate, and generate information using digital technology (e.g. computers, the web, etc.)
instructional approach to academic subjects that emphasizes the use of carefully sequenced steps that include demonstration, modeling, guided practice, and independent application.
direct vocabulary learning
explicit instruction in both the meanings of individual words and word-learning strategies. aids reading comprehension.
language with which a bilingual or multilingual speaker has greatest proficiency and/or uses more often.
dual language program/ dual immersion
designed to serve both language minority and language majority students concurrently.
severe difficulty in understanding and using symbols or function needed for success in math
a severe difficulty in producing handwriting that is legible and written at an age-appropriate speed.
a marked difficulty in remembering names or recalling words needed for oral or written language.
severe difficulty in performing drawing, writing, buttoning, and other tasks requiring fine motor skill, or in sequencing the necessary movements.
early childhood english language learner (ECELL)
a child between the ages of 0 and 5 in the process of learning ENglish as a second language
a part of writing or preparing presentation concerned chiefly with improving the clarity, organization, concision, and correctness of expression relative to task, purpose, and audience.
english language development (ELD)
instruction designed specifically for English language learners to develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in ENglish.
students learn vocab through explicit instruction on the letter-sound relationships during the reading of connected text, usually when the teacher notices that a student is struggling to read a particular word. taught as a part of sight reading.
view that literacy learning beings at birth and is encouraged through participation with adults in meaningful reading and writing activities.
emergent reader texts
texts consisting of short sentences compromised of learned sight words and CVC words; may also include rebuses to represent words that cannot yet be decoded or recognized
english as a second language (ESL)
english language learners are instructed in the use of the English language based on a special curriculum that typically includes little or no use of the native language, focusing on language (rather than content). for the rest of the school day students may be placed in mainstream classroom.
english language learner (ELL)
students whose first language is not English are in the process of learning English
set of guidelines that designate students as English language learners and help place them appropriately in bilingual education. usually includes a home language survey and performance on an English proficiency test.
facts, figures, details, quotations, or other sources of data and information that provide support for claims or an analysis and that can be evaluated by others
the ability to organize cognitive processes. includes the ability to plan ahead, prioritize, stop and start activities, shift form one activity to another activity, and to monitor one's own behavior.
set of guidelines for ending special services for English language learners and placing them in mainstream, English-only classes as fluent English speakers. Usually based on a combination of performance on an English-language proficiency test, grades, standardized tests, and teach recommendations.
efforts by young children to experiment with writing by creating pretend and real letters and by organizing scribbles and marks on paper.
the aspect of spoken language that includes speaking and the aspect of written language that includes composing or writing.
family educational right to privacy act (FERPA)
federal law that protects the privacy of student education records.
a query narrowly tailored to task, purpose, and audience, as in a research query that is sufficiently precise to allow a student to achieve adequate specificity and depth within the time and format constraints.
process of gathering information using standardized, published tests or instruments in conjunction with specific administration and interpretation procedures, and used to make general instructional decisions.
designed to evaluate students on a frequent basis so that adjustments can be made in instruction to help teach target achievement goals
free appropriate public education (FAPE)
requirement of IDEA; all disabled children must receive special education services and related services at no cost
functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
a problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior that uses techniques to identity what triggers a given behavior(s) and to select interventions that directly address them.
general academic words and phrases
vocabulary common to written texts but not commonly a part of speech; in the Standards, general academic words and phrases are analogous to Tier Two words and phrases
grade equivalent scores
in a norm-reference assessment, individual student's scores are reported relative to those of the norming population. THis cae be done in a variety of wats, but one way is to report the average grade of students who received the same score as teh individual child.
a letter or letter combination that spells a single phoneme. In English, this may be one, two, three, or four letters (such as e, ei, igh, eigh)
text, diagram, or other pictorial device that summarizes and illustrates interrelationships among concepts in a text. Also known as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.
independent educational evaluation (IEE)
An evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner, who is not employed by the school district at the public's expense.
independent school district (ISD)
commonly used acronym in education plans to refer to the school system the child attends
a student performance done without scaffolding from a teacher, other adult, or peer; in Standards, often paired with proficient(ly) to suggest a successful student performance done without scaffolding; in the Reading standards, the act of reading a text without scaffolding, as in an assessment.
indirect vocabulary learning
occurs when students hear or see words used in many different contexts. for example, through conversations with adults, being read to, and reading extensively on their own.
individualized education program (IEP)
a plan outlining special education and related services specifically designed to meet the unique educational needs or a student with a disability.
individualized transition plan (ITP)
a plan developed by the IEP team to help accomplish the student's goals for the transition from high school into adulthood.