Combo with Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell and 1 other

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Light microscope

microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object

electron microscope

a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light

magnification, resolution, contrast

What are the three important features in microscopy?

magnification

in microscopy, it makes images bigger

resolution

in microscopy, it measures the clarity in image.

contrast

in microscopy, allows differences to become more visible.

Brightfield microscope

this is used in our lab, we can use a stained or unstained specimen

Phase-contrast

Transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light intensity; best for observing intracellular structures. Play with optics. living cells can be used.

differential interference contrast (DIC)

An instrument that provides a three-dimensional, magnified image. Like phase-contrast, DIC uses differences in refractive indexes to produce an image, but with higher resolution and appears nearly 3-dimensional.

fluorescence microscope

Type of microscope that uses ultraviolet light to reveal particular compounds that have been stained with fluorescent. Requires chemical that kill cells. Antibodies and stains used.

confocal microscopy

a technique in light microscopy used to reconstruct 3-D images in successive slices. Specimen are stained with flourochromes so they will emit light. Often used when studying cancer cells.

deconvolution microscopy

yields high-resolution optical sections that can be reconstructed into one three-dimensional image

super-resolution

computer used to light up individual fluorescent molecules, record their position and combine the info to create a high resolution image. Uses composition algorithms.

Brightfield, phase contrast, differential interference contrast. fluorescence, confocal, deconvolution, super-resolution

Name the 7 types of light microscopes.

transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Name the 2 types of electron microscopes.

transmission electron microscope (TEM)

a microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections and is primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells. Kills cells.

scanning electron microscope (SEM)

A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography. Uses heavy metal with mainly silver. 3-D image, scans outside of specimen, takes 1-3 days.

Cell fractionation

Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another through a centrifuge.

Prokaryotic cells

domain Archaea and domain Bacteria are what kind of cells?

Eukaryotic cells

organisms in the domain Eukarya are made up of what kind of cells?

Eukaryotic cells

Cells that have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions.

plasma membrane, cytosal/cytoplasm semifluid, ribosomes, chromosomes

What are the characteristics of ALL cells?

no nucleus, DNA in an unbound nucleoid region, no membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane.

What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells?

DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope, membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm fills space between plasma membrane and nucleus.

What are the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?

no.

True or false: eukaryotic cells are generally smaller than prokaryotic cells?

plasma membrane

a selective phospholipid barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell.

hydrophobic

Fatty acid tails are where __________ region is located.

polar

Is water a polar or nonpolar molecule?

hydrophillic

Phosphoheads are located in the hydrophillic or hydrophobic region of the phopholipid bilayer?

continuous

In an animal cell, endoplasmic reticulum is ______ with the nucleus.

mitosis, meiosis

the centrosome is involved in ________ and ________.

mitochondria

In animal cells, this is the site of cellular respiration, a process that undergoes production of ATP.

nucleus

In eukaryotic cells, the _____ carries the DNA, which houses the genetic instructions, which then are carried out by the ribosomes.

ribosomes

site of protein synthesis; uses info from DNA to make proteins.

Nuclear envelope

surrounds the nucleus as a phospholipid bilayer. It contains nuclear pores.

Nucleolus

a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus that is made of RNA.

chromosomes

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

chromatin

The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, ________ exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.

nuclear lamina

A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.

false. (there is no cell wall so it can be any shape)

True or false: an animal cell is round.

RNA and some protein

What are ribosomes made of up? (two things)

free ribosomes

scattered throughout the cytoplasm, the proteins they manufacture enter the cytosol.

bound ribosomes

attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)

endomembrane system

The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, nuclear envelope, plasma membrane, and vacuoles.

biosynthetic

The endoplasmic reticulum can be referred as the ________ factory.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

no attached ribosomes; three main functions: intracellular transport, lipid synthesis, drug and alcohol detoxification. It can also metabolize (break down) carbohydrates and stores calcium ions.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

structure that has bound ribosomes (which secrete glycoproteins), distributes transport vesicles, and is a membrane factory for cell.

glycoproteins

proteins covalently bounded to carbohydrates.

Golgi apparatus

This is the shipping and receiving center of eukaryotic cells. It modifies products of the E.R., makes macromolecules, and sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles.

lysosome

membrane-bound sac containing hydrolytic enzymes, which breaks down macromolecules such as: proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides. It works best in an acidic environment.

phagocytosis

cell eating

food vacuoles

a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell

Lysosomes

__________ fuse with food vacuoles to break down food.

contractile vacuoles

found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells

central vacuole

A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development. It holds food and water.

Chloroplast

site of photosynthesis

peroxisomes

Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals. Oxidative organelles.

double membrane, ribosomes, DNA, independently

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts share these common characteristics: enveloped by ______ ________, they both have their own _________ and circular ____ (circular form), and they grow and reproduce somewhat ________ (they can make copies of themselves within cell, based on cell need.

Endosymbiont theory

This theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell. Eventually, the engulfed cell formed a relationship with the host cell in which it was enclosed, becoming an endosymbiont (a cell living within another cell). Indeed, over the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have then taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts.

-symbiosis

two cells that work together

endo-

inside

endomembrane theory

A theory about everything in the endomembrane system. It is theorized that an infolding of plasma membrane created organelles within.

cristae

Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondria that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

inner membrane, outer membrane, matrix, intermembrane space.

The mitochondria contains: _____ ____________, _______ __________, __________, _____________ ____________.

intermembrane space

In the mitochondria, the space in between the outer membrane and cristae is called _____ ___________.

thylakoid, Granum, stroma.

The chloroplast contains which three main features?

thylakoid

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. "One pancake."

Granum

a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast. "stack of pancakes"

stroma

The dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

peroxisome

Produces hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water. Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane.

cytoskeleton

network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement

microtubules

hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell. (spindle)

microfilaments

Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell. They are "actin filaments." Helps give shape. With myosin (muscle tissue), they can give movement.

intermediate filaments

The job if these filaments is support and motility (motor proteins help it move). They are the monorails for vesicles that travel along the cytoplasm.

microtubules

What are centrosomes and centrioles made up of?

centrosomes

what are considered the microtubule organizing centers?

centrioles

composed of nine sets of triplet microtubule arrange in a ring. "9+0 arrangement"

cilia and flagella

hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.

motile cilia

9 dublets of microtubles arranged around a central dublet . "9+2 arrangement"

microtubules

what controls the beating of cilia and flagella?

7 nm

what is the diameter of a microfilament?

8-12 nm

what is the diameter of intermediate filaments?

cell walls of plants, the extracellular matrix of animals cells, intercellular junctions

what are the three extracellular structures?

plants, protists (some), prokaryotes

In what cells can you find a cell wall?

protection

what is the function of a cell wall?

plasmodesmata

Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.

primary cell wall

in plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young cell. it is always seen in plants.

intergrins, collagen, proteoglygans, fibronectin

what are the four structures found in the extracellular matrix of animal cell walls?

matrix

liquidy substance with stuff on it.

support, adhesion. movement, regulation.

What are the four functions of the extracellular matrix of animal cells?

tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions

In animal cells, what are three types of cell junctions?

tight junctions and desmosomes

which two animal cell junctions hold cells together?

gap junction

A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.

emergent properties

The statement: "The cell is a living unit greater than the sum of its parts" is a perfect example of ________ _______.

Selective permeability

selective with what goes across it.

amphipathic molecules

containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions

Fluid mosaic model

Name the model that describes molecules within membrane that constantly move and that consists of divers parts. The plasma membrane is considered this kind of model.

1935, Davson, Danielli

In what year did Hugh _____ and James ______ propose the sandwhich model in which the phospholipid bilayer lies between two layers of globular proteins?

1972, Singer, Nicolson

In what year did S.J. ________ and G. ________ came up with another theory of what phospholipid bilayer looks like? Where the proteins are EMBEDDED in the phospholipid bilayer? Freeze fracture studies led to this idea.

True

True or false: proteins move slowly because of size.

yes.

Does the phospholipid bilayer constantly move?

10 to the 7th per sec

What is the rate of the lateral movement of the phospholipid bilayer?

slowly

If the temperature of the plasma membrane is cool, does the membrane move slowly or faster?

faster

If the temperature of the plasma membrane is hot, does the membrane move slowly or faster?

fatty-acid tails

saturated hydrocarbon tails

cholesterol

What helps with the fluidity of the membrane within an animal cell membrane?

slows

With cholesterol, warm temperatures ______ phospholipids.

maintain

In cholesterol, cool temperatures _______ fluidity by preventing tight packing in phospholipids.

butter

what is one example of saturated hydrocarbon tails?

liquids

what is an example of unsaturated hydrocarbon tails?

peripheral proteins

proteins that bound to the surface of membrane

integral proteins

proteins that penetrate the hydrophillic core

transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM.)

what are the six major functions of membrane proteins?

selective

membrane structure results in __________ permeability.

hydrophobic (non-polar) molecules

molecules, such as hydrocarbons, can dissolve in lipid bilayer and pass through membrane rapidly.

polar molecules

these molecules include water and sugar, which do not pass easily through the membrane.

transport proteins

proteins that allow hydrophillic things to move across

aquaporins

these proteins allow passage of water.

passive transport

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy, from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient.

Diffusion

the movement of molecules of any substance so
that they spread out evenly into the available space. This is a type of passive transport.

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Moving up a gradient.

osmosis

the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent.

tonicity

movement of water into and out of the cell.

isotonic

If the tonicity of an animal cell is normal, then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypertonic

If the tonicity of an animal cell is shriveled, then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypotonic

If the tonicity of an animal cell is lysed, then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypotonic

If the tonicity of a plant cell is turgid (normal), then in what kind of environment is it in?

isotonic

If the tonicity of a plant cell is flaccid (wilting), then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypertonic

If the tonicity of a plant cell is plasmolyzed (dying), then in what kind of environment is it in?

osmoregulation

control of solute concentration for organisms living in a hypotonic environment. For example, protists use this kind of regulation.

facilitated diffusion

movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.

aquaporins and ion channels (gated channels)

what ar two kinds of channel proteins used in facilitated diffusion?

ATP

In active transport, what kind of energy is used?

cotransport

the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.

Proton pump

Through the ______ _____, the hydrogen ion can go from the low concentration to high concentration.

sucrose.

Once the hydrogen ion passes through the proton pump from a low gradient to a high gradient, the hydrogen ion goes down the gradient through diffusion, which allows ______ to pass through.

exocytosis

the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out

endocytosis

process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane.

phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis

What are three types of endocytosis?

phagocytosis

process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell, "cell eating" "BIG stuff"

Pinocytosis

cell drinking

receptor-mediated endocytosis

The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.

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