Combo with General Biology Exam 2 and 2 others

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Prokaryote

"before nucleus" small, no nucleus, smaller ribosomes, and no membrane-enclosed organelles.

Eukaryote

"true nucleus" enclosed nucleus, various organelles partitioned into compartments

.001mm to .010mm

Size of most prokaryotic cells

.010mm to .100mm

Size of most eukaryotic cells

1,000,000

how many micrometers make up one meter?

Nucleoid

Where the DNA is located in a prokaryotic cell

Ribosomes

Synthesizes proteins in prokaryotic cell

plasma membrane

encloses prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

cell wall

maintains shape or prokaryotic cells

capsule

jelly like outer coating of prokaryotic cells

flagela

Used for locomotion in prokaryotic cells

Fimbriae

Used to attach to surfaces in prokaryotic cells

Nuclear Envelope

Double walled membrane that encloses nucleus; controls the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus

Smooth ER

has no ribosomes; synthesizes lipids

Rough ER

has ribosomes attached; makes more membrane and it's ribosomes produce proteins that will be inserted into growing ER, transported to other organelles, or secreted by the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

receives vesicles from the ER (though the cis face), modifies proteins and then proteins exit out of the trans face via vesicles

Lysosomes

membranous sac of digestive enzymes that engulfs food vacuoles and digest food, then releases the nutrients into the cell

Transport vesicles

Buds off the rough ER and transports various proteins and enzymes

Vacuoles

large vesicles that have a variety of functions depending on the cell

Peroxisomes (NOT part of endomembrane system)

metabolic compartments that did not originate from endomembrane system. Some break down fatty acids and some neutralize toxic compounds.

Plasma Membrane

Phospholipid bilayer that forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and the outside

produces primary proteins

What is the function of ribosomes?

ribosomes

most of its product functions in the cytoplasm; produces enzymes that catalyze first steps of sugar breakdown and also produces proteins that may be modified into other proteins

nucleolus

Which organelle produces ribosomes?

rRNA; subunits

Proteins are brought into the nucleolus through nuclear pores from cytoplasm and are assembled with _____ to create ribosomal _________.

pores; functional

Ribosomal subunits exit through _____ into cytoplasm and join to form __________ ribosomes.

nuclear envelope; mitochondria; chloroplasts

What 3 organelles possess a set of two biological membranes?

mitochondria and chloroplasts

What 2 organelles are involved in energy production for cells?

Endosymbiont Theory

What is the theory that states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells?

Microfilaments

______________ are globular proteins called actin in a twisted double chain

Intermediate filaments

___________________ are various fibrous proteins that supercoil into thicker cables

Microtubules

_______ are formed from globular proteins called tubulins

microtubules; plasma membrane

Flagellum and cilia are constructed from __________ wrapped in an extension of the __________ ____________.

hormones; chemicals

Both articles blamed infertility and sperm immobility on _________ and __________.

Dyneine

_________ proteins missing between outer microtubule doublets and central microtubules are to blame for sperm immobility.

together; plasma

The ECM is an elaborate layer that helps hold cells ____________ and supports the __________ membrane.

glycoproteins; carbohydrates

ECM is made of ___________ which are proteins bonded with _____________.

collagen (and were produced by the cell they now surround)

What is the most abundant glycoprotein in ECM?

Tight Junctions

What type of connection is found in Intestine, Bladder, and epithelium?

Tight Junctions

What is the type of cell connection that is tightly riveted that forms a continuous seal to prevent leakage and forces osmosis to occur?

riveted; osmosis

Tight junctions are tightly _________ and forces _______ to occur.

Desmosomes

Cell to Cell connections are formed with _______________.

sheets

Desmosomes form cell to cell "_______".

Hemidesmosomes

_____________ anchor cells to proteins.

Gap Junctions

___ __________ allow cell contents to be shared and causes them to synchronize and coordinate movements.

cardiac muscle; Embryos

Gap junctions can be found in ________ ______ and _______.

communicating

Gap Junctions are also called _____________ junctions.

not

Peripheral (floating) proteins are ___ embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.

partially; completely

Integral proteins can be ________ or _________ embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.

with (no energy investment)

Transmembrane glycoproteins span the entire bilayer and transport _____ the concentration gradient.

glycolipid; carbohydrate

A _________ is a __________ that replaces one head and extends out of the cell

cholesterol; hydrophilic heads

___________ is embedded between ____________ _____.

Glycoprotein; Integral; collagen fiber

In ECM _____________ connects to the embedded _______ protein, which connects to a __________ _____.

tonicity

__________ is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water.

Hypotonic

If the solute concentration is less than inside the cell so the cell brings in water the solution is said to be ____________.

Hypertonic

If the solute concentration is more than inside the cell so the cell loses water then the solution is said to be _____________.

Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a membrane is called?

Passive Transport (CO2 O2 Cholesterol Steroids)

__________ _____________ is diffusion across a membrane with NO energy investment.

Passively

CO2 O2 Cholesterol and Steroids can all be transported ___________.

no

does passive transport use energy?

no

does facilitated diffusion use energy?

facilitated diffusion

Polar and charged substances moving across a membrane with the help of a specific transport protein going with the concentration gradient without using energy is called _______ _________.

R

Integral proteins fold and orient amino acid _ groups, so that it interacts with aqueous environments and nonpolar regions of the bilayer.

aquaporins

Another name for the transport proteins that facilitate the diffusion of water is _____________.

Sugars, amino acids, ions, and water

List some polar substances which are transported by facilitated diffusion.

O2 CO2 Cholesterol Steroids

__ ___ __________ and ________ can all diffuse across the bilayer with no help form proteins.

calcium; actively; calcium ion

____________ions are _________ transported by ________ ____ pumps.

Organelle

If the concentration of calcium inside an organelle is higher than in the cytoplasm, in which direction will calcium ions be actively transported? Into the _________.

ATP (energy)

active transport requires ___.

exocytosis; proteins; polysaccharides

a cell uses __________ to export bulky materials such as _______ or _______________.

endocytosis; vesicle

__________ is a transport process that is the opposite of exocytosis, where the cell takes in large molecules to form a _________.

phagocytosis; lysosome

____________ is the type of endocytosis where pseudopodiums engulf food, form a vacuole, and then fuses with a ________.

receptor mediated endocytosis

________ ________ ___________ is a highly selective form or endocytosis. The vesicle is coated with a coat protein after the specific material binds to the receptor proteins in the coated pit.

pinocytosis

____________ aka "cellular drinking" is when the cell gulps droplets of fluid into tiny vesicles. It is a non specific process.

receptor mediated endocytosis

cholesterol uses _________ _________ __________ to enter cells.

LDL; defective

____ circulates in the blood until it enters the cell by endocytosis. High cholesterol occurs when receptor proteins on cells are _______ and cholesterol builds up in the blood stream.

adenosine triphosphate

ATP is an acronym for ___________ __________.

ATP

What powers nearly all forms of cellular work?

adenine; ribose

The adenosine part of ATP consists of __________, a nitrogenous base, and ______, a five carbon sugar.

three phosphates (negatively charged)

The triphosphate part of ATP consists of a chain of ______ ___________.

ADP (adenosine diphosphate); energy

When ATP hydrolizes the product is ___, one phosphate group, and ______.

exergonic

________ means releases energy.

Phosphorylation

Phosphate transfer from ATP to another molecule is called _____________.

chemical, mechanical, and transport

What are the three main types of cellular work.

regenerate

ATP is a renewable resource that cells __________.

ATP; ADP

All work releases a phosphate group from ___ and forms ___.

exergonic (releases energy; so ADP takes energy and makes ATP from energy being released elsewhere)

___________ processes phosphorylate ADP to form ATP.

endergonic (energy storing; ATP is hydrolyzed and ADP, one phosphate group, and ENERGY are the product)

ATP transfers energy to __________ processes by phosphorylating other molecules.

coupled

The sodium potassium pump is a ________ transporter.

muscle; nervous

_________ tissue and ___________ tissue depend on pumps to allow membranes to work.

against

Pumps pump _____ the concentration gradient.

Symporter

What is the term to describe a pump that pumps two things together?

antiporter

What is the term to describe a pump that pumps one thing one way and another thing the other way. (like the Sodium Potassium Pump)

3 out 2 into

The Sodium potassium pump pumps _ sodium ions ___ of the cell and _ potassium ions ___ the cell.

Selective permeability

selective with what goes across it.

amphipathic molecules

containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions

Fluid mosaic model

Name the model that describes molecules within membrane that constantly move and that consists of divers parts. The plasma membrane is considered this kind of model.

1935, Davson, Danielli

In what year did Hugh _____ and James ______ propose the sandwhich model in which the phospholipid bilayer lies between two layers of globular proteins?

1972, Singer, Nicolson

In what year did S.J. ________ and G. ________ came up with another theory of what phospholipid bilayer looks like? Where the proteins are EMBEDDED in the phospholipid bilayer? Freeze fracture studies led to this idea.

True

True or false: proteins move slowly because of size.

yes.

Does the phospholipid bilayer constantly move?

10 to the 7th per sec

What is the rate of the lateral movement of the phospholipid bilayer?

slowly

If the temperature of the plasma membrane is cool, does the membrane move slowly or faster?

faster

If the temperature of the plasma membrane is hot, does the membrane move slowly or faster?

fatty-acid tails

saturated hydrocarbon tails

cholesterol

What helps with the fluidity of the membrane within an animal cell membrane?

slows

With cholesterol, warm temperatures ______ phospholipids.

maintain

In cholesterol, cool temperatures _______ fluidity by preventing tight packing in phospholipids.

butter

what is one example of saturated hydrocarbon tails?

liquids

what is an example of unsaturated hydrocarbon tails?

peripheral proteins

proteins that bound to the surface of membrane

integral proteins

proteins that penetrate the hydrophillic core

transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM.)

what are the six major functions of membrane proteins?

selective

membrane structure results in __________ permeability.

hydrophobic (non-polar) molecules

molecules, such as hydrocarbons, can dissolve in lipid bilayer and pass through membrane rapidly.

polar molecules

these molecules include water and sugar, which do not pass easily through the membrane.

transport proteins

proteins that allow hydrophillic things to move across

aquaporins

these proteins allow passage of water.

passive transport

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy, from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient.

Diffusion

the movement of molecules of any substance so
that they spread out evenly into the available space. This is a type of passive transport.

active transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Moving up a gradient.

osmosis

the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent.

tonicity

movement of water into and out of the cell.

isotonic

If the tonicity of an animal cell is normal, then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypertonic

If the tonicity of an animal cell is shriveled, then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypotonic

If the tonicity of an animal cell is lysed, then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypotonic

If the tonicity of a plant cell is turgid (normal), then in what kind of environment is it in?

isotonic

If the tonicity of a plant cell is flaccid (wilting), then in what kind of environment is it in?

hypertonic

If the tonicity of a plant cell is plasmolyzed (dying), then in what kind of environment is it in?

osmoregulation

control of solute concentration for organisms living in a hypotonic environment. For example, protists use this kind of regulation.

facilitated diffusion

movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.

aquaporins and ion channels (gated channels)

what ar two kinds of channel proteins used in facilitated diffusion?

ATP

In active transport, what kind of energy is used?

cotransport

the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.

Proton pump

Through the ______ _____, the hydrogen ion can go from the low concentration to high concentration.

sucrose.

Once the hydrogen ion passes through the proton pump from a low gradient to a high gradient, the hydrogen ion goes down the gradient through diffusion, which allows ______ to pass through.

exocytosis

the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out

endocytosis

process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane.

phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis

What are three types of endocytosis?

phagocytosis

process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell, "cell eating" "BIG stuff"

Pinocytosis

cell drinking

receptor-mediated endocytosis

The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.

Light microscope

microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object

electron microscope

a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light

magnification, resolution, contrast

What are the three important features in microscopy?

magnification

in microscopy, it makes images bigger

resolution

in microscopy, it measures the clarity in image.

contrast

in microscopy, allows differences to become more visible.

Brightfield microscope

this is used in our lab, we can use a stained or unstained specimen

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