Chapter 4 Study Guide Questionsjlc

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helical; move by flagella, if present

spirilla

spherical; in chains

streptococci

divide in three regular planes; spheres form cubelike packets

sarcinae

helical; axial filaments for motility

spirochetes

a simple, commalike curve

vibrios

name means "little staff"

bacilli

ovals

coccobacilli

golgi complex belongs to what type of cell?

eukaryotic

meiosis occurs in reproduction in what type of cell?

eukaryotic

usually single circular chromosomes without histones

prokaryotes

sterols generally present in what type of cell membrane?

eukaryotic

what cell wall almost always contains peptidoglycan

prokaryotes

nucleus bounded by a membrane is what kind of cell?

eukaryotic

contain pigments for photosynthesis by bacteria; found in the plasma membrane

chromatophores

gram-negative bacterial calls after their treatment with lysozyme

spheroplasts

specialized external structures that assist in the transfer of genetic material between cells

sex pili

numerous short, hairlike appendages that help in attachment to mucous membranes

fimbriae

general term for substances surrounding bacterial cells

glycocalyx

polysaccharides found in the cell wall of many gram-positive bacteria

teichoic acids

inclusion of iron oxide

magnetosomes

metachromatic granules of stored phosphate in prokaryotes

volutin

entrance of fluids and dissolved substances into eukaryotic cells

pinocytosis

membrane-enclosed spheres in phagocytic cells that contain powerful digestive enzymes

lysosomes

the "powerhouse" of the cell

mitochondria

a gel-like fluid found in the eukaryotic nucleus

nucleoplasm

a folded inner membrane found in mitochondria

cristae

sometimes contributes to movement of a cell

cytoplasmic streaming

found in walls of acid-fast bacteria

mycolic acid

arrangement of flagella distributed over the entire cell

peritrichous

a single flagellum at each end of the cell

amphitrichous

a widening at the base of the flagellar filament

hook

an enzyme affecting gram-positive cell walls; found in tears

lysozyme

a compound found in bacterial endospores

dipicolinic acid

a compound frequently found in the cell walls of yeast

chitin

no flagella

atrichous

closely involved in protein synthesis

ribosomes

structures characteristic of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic plasma membranes

phospholipid bilayer

found in the flagella and cilia of eurkaryotic cells

microtubules

highly resistant bodies formed by a few bacterial species

endopsores

small circular DNA molecules that are not connected with the main chromosome

plasmids

the semifluid center portion of the mitochondrion

matrix

a substance similar to peptidoglycan that is found in the cell wall of archaea

pseudomurein

bacteria with irregular morphology

pleomorphic

extracellular plymeric substances on some bacterial cells; may help cells adhere to surfaces

glycocalyx

bacterial cell with thin peptidoglycan layer, outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide

gram-negative

protein that forms fimbriae

pilin

bundles of microtubules that probably play a role in cell division of eukaryotic cells

centrioles

bacteria that have lost their cell walls and may later spontaneously regain them

L-forms

ER associated with ribosomes

rough ER

ingrowth of plasma membrane before endospore formation

septum

anchors the flagella of bacteria to the cell wall and plasma membrane

basal body

chemically, the capsule is a ______, a polypeptide or both

polysaccharide

capsules protect pathogenic bacteria from ______, a process by which protective host cells engulf and destroy microorganisms

phagocytosis

the golgi complex consists of flattened sacs called ______ that are connected to the endoplasmic reticulum

cisterns

the ______ complex consist of four to eight flattened sacs connected to the ER. The function is largely secretion of proteins, lipids, and carbs

golgi

the term ______ means a lower concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside

hypotonic

three examples of passive diffusion across a membrane are:

simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion

the protein in the flagellar filaments of bacteria is called

flagellin

DNA in eukaryotic cells is combined with protein ______ and nonhistones

histones

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