Medical Terminology for Health Professions Chapter 7 The Respiratory System

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Pharynx
(FAR-inks)

Which is commonly known as the throat, receives the air after it pases through the nose. The Pharynx is made up os three dicisions. Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and the Larynagopharynx

Nasopharynx
(nay-zoh-FAR-inks)

Which is the first divisions, is posterior to the nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth. This portion of the pharynx is used only by the respiratory system for the trasport of air and opens into the oropharynx.

-pharynx

Means throat.

Oropharynx
(oh-roh-FAR-inks)

Which is the second division, is the portion that is visible when looking into the mouth. The oropharynx is shared by the respiratory and digestive system and transports air, food, and fluids downward to the laryngopharynx.

or/o

Means mouth, or oral cavity.

Laryngopharynx
(lah-ring--goh-FAR-inks)

Which is the third division, is also shared by both the respiratory and digestive systems. Air, Food, and fluids continue downward to the openings of the esophagus and trachea where air enters the trachea and food and fluids flow into the esophagus.

Larynx
(LAR-inks)

Also known as the Voice Box, is a triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea.
-The larynx is protected and supported by a series of nine separate cartilages. the Thyroid Cartilage is the largest, and when enlarged, it is commonly known as the Adam's Apple.
-The larynx contains the Vocal Cords. During breathing, the cords are separated to let air pass. During speech, they close together, and sound is produced as air is expelled from the lungs, causing the cords to vibrate against each other.

laryng/o

Means larynx

Protective Swallowing Mechanisms

-During swallowing, the soft palate, which is the muscular posterior portion of the roof of the mouth, moves up and backward to close off the nasopharynx. This movement prevents food or liquid from going up into the nose.
-At the same time, the EPIGLOTTIS, which is a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue, swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so that food does not enter the trachea and the lungs.

Palate

Is the muscular posterior portion of the roof of the mouth.

Epiglottis
(ep-ih-GLOT-is)

Is a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue.

Trachea
(TRAY-kee-ah)

Commonly known as the Windpipe, is the tube located directly in front of the esophagus that extends from the neck to the chest.
Its role is to transport air to, and from, the lungs.
-The trachea is held open by a series of C-shaped cartilage rings. The wall between these rings is flexible, and this feature makes it possible for the trachea to adjust to different body positions.

Bronchi
(BRONG-kye)

Are formed where the trachea divides into two branches known as the Primary Bronchi. Because of the similarity of these branching structures to an inverted tree, this is referred to as the Bronchial Tree with one brach giong into each lung.

Alveoli
(al-VEE-oh-lye)

Also known as AIR Sacs, are the very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole. Each lung contains millions of alveoli that are filled with air fro the bronchioles.

Bronchioles
(BRONG-kee-ohlz)

Which are the smallest branches of the Bronchi.

Lungs

Which are the organs of respiration, are divided into lobes.
A lobe is a subdivision or part of an organ.
The lungs produce a detergent-like substance, known as a surfactant, which reduces the surface tension of the lungs. This allows air to flow over the lungs and be obsorbed more easily.

Lobe

Is a subdivision or part of an organ.

Right Lung

Has three lobes: the superior, middle, and inferior.

Left Lung

Has only two lobes: The superior and inferior. It is slightly smaller than the right lung because of the space taken up by the heart.

Mediastinum
(mee-dee-as-TYE-num)

Is the cavity located between the lungs. This cavity contains connective tissue and organs, including the heart and its veins and arteries, the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, the thymus gland, and lymph nodes.

Pleura
(PLOOR-ah)

Is a thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage.

Parietal Pleura
(pah-RYE-eh-tal)

Is the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung. Parietal means relating to the walls of a cavity.

Visceral Pleura
(VIS-er-al)

Is the inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung. Visceral means relating to the intenal organs.

Pleural Cavity

Also known as the Pleural Space, is the airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes. This space contains a thin layer of fluid that allows the membranes to slide easily during breathing.

Diaphragm
(DYE-ah-fram)

Is the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen. It is the contraction and relaxation of this muscle that makes breathing possible. The Phrenic Nerves(FREN-ick) stimulate the diaphragm and cause it to contract.

Phrenic Nerves
(FREN-ick)

Stimmulates the diaphragm and cause it to contract.

Inhalation
(in-hah-LAY-shun)

Is the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward. This action causes the thoracic cavity to expand. This produces a vacum within the thoracic cavity that draws air into the lungs.

Respiration

Is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that is essential to life. A single respiration consists of one inhalation and one exhalation.

Exhalation

Is the act of breathing out. As the diaphragm relaxes, it moves upward, causing the thoracic cavity to become narrower. This action forces air out of the lungs.

External Respiration

Is the act of bringing air into and out of the lungs and exchanging gases from this air.

Internal Respiration

Is the exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells, and tissues.

Otolaryngologist
(oh-toh-lar-in-GOL-oh-jist)

Also known as an ENT, is a physician with specialized training in the diagnoses and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the jead and neck.

Ot/o

Means ear.

-ologist

Means specialist.

Pulmonologist
(pull-mah-NOL-oh-jist)

Is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Also known as COPD, is a lung disease in which it is hard to breathe. In this condition, damage to the bronchi partially obstructs them, making it difficult to get air in and out. Most people with COPD, who are usually smokers or former smokers, also have both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Chronic Bronchitis

The airway have become inflamed and thickened, and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells. This results in excessive mucus production, which in turn causes caughing and difficulty getting air in and out of the lungs.

-itis

Means Inflammation.

Emphysema
(em-fih-SEE-mah)

Is the progressive loss of lung function that is characterized by (1)a decrease in the total number of alveoli,(2) The enlargement of the remaining alveoli, and (3) The progressive destruction of the walls of the remaining alveoli.
As the alveoli are destroyed, breathing becomes increasingly rapid, shallow, and difficult. In and effort to compensate for the loss of capacity, the lungs expand, and the chest sometimes assumes an enlarged barrel shape.

Asthma

Is a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.This episodes are known as Asthmatic Attacks. Wheezing is a breathing sound caused by a partially obstructed airway. The frequency and severity of asthmatic attacks is influenced by a variety of factors including allergens, environmental agents, exercise, or infection.

Wheezing

Is a breathing sound caused by a partially obstructed airway.

Airway Inflammation

Is the swelling and clogging of the airways with mucus. This usually occurs after the airway has been exposed to inhaled allergens.

Bronchospasm
(brong-koh-spazm)

Is a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut.

-spasm

Means involuntary contraction.

Exercise-induced Bronchospasms (EIB)

Are the narrowing of the airways that develops after 5-15 minutes of physical exertion. This also can be due to cold weather or allergies.

Controller Medicines

Such as inhaled corticosteroids, are taken daily to prevent attacks. These medications help to control inflammation and to stop the airways from reacting to the factors that trigger the asthma.

Quick-relief

Are taken at the first sign of an attack to dilate the airways and make breathing easier. This medication is known as bronchodilators.

Rescue Medication

Are taken at the first sign lf an attack to dilate the airways and make breathing easier. This medication is known as bronchodilators.

Upper Respiratory Infection

Common Cold. An upper respiratory infection can be caused by any one of 200 different viruses.

Acute Nasopharyngitis

Common Cold. An upper respiratory infection can be caused by any one of 200 different viruses.

Allergic Rhinitis
(rye-NIGH-tis)

Commonly referred to as an allergy, is an allergic reaction to airborne allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus.

Croup
(KROOP)

Is an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough.

Diphtheria
(dif-THEE-ree-ah)

Now largely prevented through immunization, is an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract. The diphtheria bacteria produce toxins that can damage the heart muscle and peripheral nerves.

Epistaxis
(ep-ih-STACK-sis)

Also known as a Nose Bleed, is bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders.

Influenza
(in-flew-EN-zah)

Also known as the Flu, is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection that is spread by respriatory droplets and occurs most commonly in epidemics during the colder months.

Pertussis
(per-TUS-is)

Also known as Whooping Cough, is a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness, and a noisy inspiration.
Paroxysmal means sudden or spasm-like.

Rhinorrhea
(rye-noh-REE-ah)

Also known as a Runny Nose, is the watery flow of mucus from the nose.

-rrhea

Means abnormal discharge.

Pharyngitis

Also known as a Sore Throat, is an inflammation of the pharynx.

Sinusitis
(sigh-nuh-SIGH-tis)

Is an inflammation of the sinuses.

Laryngoplegia
(lar-ing-goh-PLEE-jee-ah)

Is paralysis of the larynx.

-plegia

Means Paralysis.

Laryngospasm
(lah-RING-goh-spazm)

Is the sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx.

-spasm

Mens a sudden involuntary contraction.

Aphonia
(ah-FOH-nee-ah)

Is the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds.

a-

Means without

Phon/o

Means voice or sound.

-ia

Means abnirmal conditions.

Dysphonia
(dis-FOH-nee-ah)

Is any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty.

Laryngitis
(lar-in-JIGH-tis)

Is an inflammation of the larynx. This term is also commonly used to describe voice loss that is caused by this inflammation.

Tracheorrhagia
(tray-kee-oh-RAY-jee-ah)

Is bleeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea.

-rrhagia

Means bleeding.

Bronchorrhea
(brong-koh-REE-ah)

is an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi.

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