Chapter 14 History

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Edwin L. Drake

successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania.

Beesemer Process

This technique involved injecting air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities.

Brooklyn Bridge

One of the most remarkable structures constructed was the

William Jenny

designed the first sky scraper with a steel frame - the home insurance building in Chicago.

Thomas Edison

became a pioneer on the new industrial frontier when he established the world's first research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.

incandescent light bulb

Edison perfected the _____________ - patented in 1880 and later invented an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power.

Christopher Sholes

invented the typewriter in 1867 and changed the world of work.

Alexander Graham Bell

invented the telephone

transcontinental railroad

A golden spike marked the spanning of the nation by the first _________

Professor C. F. Dowd, 24 time zones

_______ proposed that the earth's surface be divided into ___________, one for each hour of the day

Credit Mobilier

In one of the most infamous schemes, stockholders in the Union Pacific railroad formed, in 1864, a construction company called ________

granger laws

laws to establish maximum freight and passenger rates and prohibit discrimination.

Munn v. Illinois

In the case of _________, the supreme court upheld the Granger laws by a vote of seven to two.

states

as a result of Munn V. Illinois, the _____ thus won the rights to regulate the railroads for the benefit of farmers and consumers.

interstate commerce act

This act reestablished the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities and established a five member Interstate Commerce Commission for that purpose.

Andrew Carnegie

came to this country in 1848, at age 12. Six years later he worked his was up to become private secretary to the local superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

stock

Carnegie attracted talented people by offering them _______ in the company, and encouraged competition among his assistants.

vertical integration

a process in which he bought out is suppliers - coal fields and iron mines, ore fighters, and railroad lines - in order to control that raw materials and transportation systems.

Horizontal integration

Process where companies producing similar products merge.

natural selection

Darwin explained that the process of "________" weeded out less-suited individuals and enabled the best-adapted to survive.

Social Darwinism

grew out of the English naturalist Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution.

the origins of species

In his book, __________, published in 1859, Darwin described his observations that some individual species flourish and pass their traits along to the next generation, while others don't.

Berbert Spencer

used Darwin's biological theories to explain the evolution of human society.

William G. Sumner

______ was a political science professor at Yale university, promoted the theory that success and failure in business were governed by natural law and that no one had the right to intervene.

monopoly

complete control over its industry production.

John Rockefeller

Standard oil established by ________

trustees

people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation.

Sherman Antitrust Act

made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries.

craft unionism

One approach to the organization of labor was __________, which included skilled workers from one or more trades.

Samuel Gompers

led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join with other craft union in 1886.

American Federation of Labor

with Gompers as its president, focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management, to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions.

Eugene V. Debs,American Railway Union

_______made the first major attempts to from such an industrial union - the _____________.

Industrial Workers of the World

a group of radical unionists and socialists in Chicago organized the

Mary (Mother) Harris Jones

the most prominent organizer in the women's labor movement. Supported the Great Strike of 1877

National Labor Union

the first large-scale national organization of laborers.

Uriah Stephens

focused his attention on individual workers and organized the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor.

Socialism

an economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth.

Karl Marx

Communism was advocated by ________

Pauline Newman

the first female organizer of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.

Yellow Dog contract

contract promising that you wouldn't join a union.

Technology
Natural Resources
Capital
People

factors that contributed to industrial boom.

George M. Pullman

built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars on the Illinois prairie.

Abraham Gesner

discovered how to distill fuel from oil or coal.

open-hearth

Bessemer process was replaced by the ________ process, enabling manufacturers to produce quality steel from scrap metal as well as raw materials.

pullman

The town of ________ provided its residents with everything they needed.

holding company

company that only buys stock

trust company

many companies headed by one corporation.

strikes

American Federation of Labor used _______ as its major tactic.

Henry Clay Frick

president of Carnegie steel

Andrew Carnegie

Millionaire tycoon who made his riches in the steel industry

vertical integration

process by which a company buys out all its suppliers

social darwinism

theory that justified the efforts of millionaires and discouraged government interference in big business

holding company

a corporation that does nothing but buy out the stock of other companies.

trust

a corporation made up of competing companies that were run as one large corporation and received certificates entitling them to dividends on profits earned.

monopoly

a market in which one company had complete control over an industry's production, quality, wages paid, and prices charged.

Sherman Antitrust Act

made it illegal for corporations to form trusts or interfere with free interstate or international trade.

American Federation of Labor

this union, made up of skilled laborers focused on collective bargaining to reach written agreements with management

Eugene V. Debs

formed the american railway union

Industrial Workers of the World

organized in Chicago, 1905, by a group of radical unionists and socialists.

Marry (mother) Harris Jones

supporter of the Great strike of 1887 and organizer of the United states Mine Workers of America

transcontinental railroad

At promontory point, Utah, where the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met on May 10, 1869, a golden spike marked the linking of the nation by the first __________

George M. Pullman

_____________ was an industrialist whose company produced standard railroad cars and elegant sleeping cars. His company town, which he hoped would ensure a stable workforce, was criticized as "un-american."

Credit Mobilier Construction Company

the stockholders of the Union Pacific railroad used the ___________ to make huge, unearned profits for themselves.

state, railroads

In. Munn V. Illinois, the _______ won the right to regulate the _______ for the benefit of farmers and other consumers.

Federal Government

the Interstate commerce Act reestablished the right of the __________ to supervise railroad activities and set up the Interstate commerce Commission for that purpose.

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