Psychology Exam Two

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The absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin has been linked to
A. night terrors.
B. sleep apnea.
C. narcolepsy.
D. insomnia.

C. narcolepsy.

According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by
A. external influences.
B. emotions.
C. conscious thoughts.
D. unconscious motives.

D. evolutionary perspective.

According to drive-reduction theory, a need refers to

A. a desire to perform a behavior in order to avoid punishment.
B. a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of all people.
C. anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.
D. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

D. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

According to drive-reduction theory, a need refers to
A. a desire to perform a behavior in order to avoid punishment.
B. a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of all people.
C. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.
D. anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.

C. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.
A. adequate clothing; self-esteem
B. love; food
C. self-actualization; friendship
D. political freedom; economic security

A. adequate clothing; self-esteem

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
A. even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.
B. the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives.
C. people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive.
D. people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced to do something.

A. even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body's arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the
A. cortex.
B. hypothalamus.
C. parasympathetic nervous system.
D. thalamus.

A. cortex.

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.
A. before; after
B. after; at the same time as
C. at the same time as; after
D. before; before

B. after; at the same time as

The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language is called
A. classical conditioning.
B. partial reinforcement.
C. shaping.
D. cognitive learning.

D. cognitive learning.

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
A. decreases respiration and increases salivation.
B. increases respiration and decreases salivation.
C. decreases respiration and decreases salivation.
D. increases respiration and increases salivation.

B. increases respiration and decreases salivation.

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called
A. social loafing.
B. peripheral route persuasion.
C. conformity.
D. the reciprocity norm.

C. conformity.

Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is
A. positive punishment.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. negative punishment.
D. positive reinforcement.

A. positive punishment.

Adventurous people who relish the pursuit of novel and intense experiences are said to be
A. instinct-driven.
B. self-transcendent.
C. sensation-seekers.
D. self-actualized.

C. sensation-seekers.

Adventurous people who relish the pursuit of novel and intense experiences are said to be
A. sensation-seekers.
B. self-transcendent.
C. instinct-driven.
D. self-actualized.

A. sensation-seekers.

After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a
A. fixed-interval schedule.
B. cognitive map.
C. law of effect.
D. discriminative stimulus.

B. cognitive map.

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates
A. learned helplessness.
B. an inferiority complex.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. an internal locus of control.

A. learned helplessness.

After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.
A. social facilitation
B. mirror-image perceptions
C. role playing
D. deindividuation

C. role playing

Alex thinks smoking is addictive, but other players on his hockey team insist that it's not. Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if
A. he has publicly voiced his opinion on this issue.
B. there are very few team members whom he currently wants to befriend.
C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.
D. there is obvious disagreement among team players regarding the issue.

C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.

Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates
A. self-serving bias.
B. an external locus of control.
C. the spotlight effect.
D. reaction formation.

A. self-serving bias.

Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. instinctive drift.
C. latent learning.
D. the law of effect.

B. instinctive drift.

Anton is the only juror to favor acquittal of the defendant in a murder trial. To influence the majority he should
A. express some uncertainty about his position.
B. be self-confident and consistent in expressing his viewpoint.
C. address his arguments specifically to the member of the majority who seems most disagreeable.
D. be the last member to speak and present his argument as briefly as possible.

B. be self-confident and consistent in expressing his viewpoint.

Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)
A. positive reinforcer.
B. unconditioned stimulus.
C. negative reinforcer.
D. conditioned stimulus.

C. negative reinforcer.

Appetite-stimulating hormones and appetite-suppressing hormones are secreted by different neural centers within the
A. arcuate nucleus.
B. hippocampus.
C. amygdala.
D. frontal lobes

A. arcuate nucleus.

Arguments as to whether people's behavior is more strongly influenced by temporary external influences or by enduring inner influences best characterize the
A. self-serving bias.
B. person-situation controversy.
C. psychoanalytic perspective.
D. biopsychosocial approach.

B. person-situation controversy.

Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates
A. self-serving bias.
B. the spotlight effect.
C. learned helplessness.
D. the Barnum effect.

A. self-serving bias.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.
A. superordinate goals
B. dispositional attributions
C. norms and roles
D. belief-based feelings

D. belief-based feelings

Attribution theory suggests that we tend to attribute others' behavior either to their
A. thoughts or their emotions.
B. heredity or their environment.
C. biological motives or their psychological motives.
D. dispositions or their situations.

D. dispositions or their situations.

Attribution theory was designed to account for
A. the loss of self-awareness that occurs in group situations.
B. how people explain others' behavior.
C. the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.
D. the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.

B. how people explain others' behavior.

B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both
A. positive reinforcement and punishment.
B. shaping and immediate reinforcement.
C. continuous reinforcement and latent learning.
D. observational learning and spontaneous recovery.

B. shaping and immediate reinforcement.

Basal metabolic rate is the body's resting rate of
A. energy expenditure.
B. insulin secretion.
C. drive reduction.
D. homeostasis.

A. energy expenditure.

The basic components of emotion are
A. physical gestures, facial expressions, and psychological drives.
B. sympathetic arousal, parasympathetic inhibition, and cognitive labeling.
C. expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.
D. cognition, affect, and behavior.

C. expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.

Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of
A. latent learning.
B. generalization.
C. modeling.
D. shaping.

D. shaping.

Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Schultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates
A. choice blindness.
B. dual processing.
C. selective attention.
D. the pop-out phenomenon.

C. selective attention.

Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade-point average. In this instance, Yuri's behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George's behavior was a reflection of ________.
A. an unconditioned response; a conditioned response
B. operant conditioning; classical conditioning
C. intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
D. a fixed-interval schedule; a variable-interval schedule

C. intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation

Behaviorism encouraged psychologists to ignore the study of
A. evolution.
B. dual processing.
C. consciousness.
D. socialization.

C. consciousness.

Being highly imaginative is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
A. extraversion.
B. openness.
C. neuroticism.
D. conscientiousness.

B. openness.

The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her
A. gender identity.
B. attributional style.
C. ideal self.
D. unconditional positive regard.

B. attributional style.

The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
A. the MMPI.
B. factor analysis.
C. free association.
D. projective tests.

B. factor analysis.

Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
A. fixed-interval
B. variable-interval
C. variable-ratio
D. fixed-ratio

D. fixed-ratio

Blindfolded university students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates
A. social loafing.
B. social facilitation.
C. group polarization.
D. the chameleon effect.

A. social loafing.

A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites experts' critiques of her company's developing plans is most likely to inhibit
A. social facilitation.
B. groupthink.
C. cognitive dissonance.
D. superordinate goals.

B. groupthink.

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will
A. experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger.
B. have increased blood glucose levels.
C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.
D. have a lower set point for body weight.

C. have a lower resting metabolic rate.

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will
A. have a lower set point for body weight.
B. have a lower resting metabolic rate.
C. experience a decrease in her feelings of hunger.
D. have increased blood glucose levels.

B. have a lower resting metabolic rate.

By enabling like-minded White supremacists to pool their ideas, Internet social networking sites are likely to contribute to
A. social loafing.
B. the bystander effect.
C. social facilitation.
D. group polarization.

D. group polarization.

Carol is restless during class because her professor's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of
A. group polarization.
B. deindividuation.
C. the mere exposure effect.
D. the fundamental attribution error.

D. the fundamental attribution error.

Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. latent learning.
C. respondent behavior.
D. the law of effect.

D. the law of effect.

Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates
A. the law of effect.
B. respondent behavior.
C. latent learning.
D. spontaneous recovery.

A. the law of effect.

A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called a
A. projection.
B. self-concept.
C. trait.
D. fixation.

C. trait.

A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
A. discrimination.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. extinction.
D. spontaneous recovery.

A. discrimination

A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n)
A. unconditioned response.
B. conditioned response.
C. unconditioned stimulus.
D. conditioned stimulus.

B. conditioned response.

Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits
A. unjustified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.
B. justified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm.
C. unjustified violence that causes a lot of visible pain or harm.
D. justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.

D. justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.

Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of
A. shaping.
B. delayed reinforcement.
C. respondent behavior.
D. observational learning.

D. observational learning.

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. observational learning.
C. operant conditioning.
D. respondent behavior.

C. operant conditioning.

Comedian-writer Mark Malkoff reported that his fear of flying faded after he faced his fear and lived on an airplane for 30 days. His reduction of fear best illustrated the process of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. secondary reforcement.
C. cognitive learning.
D. extinction.

D. extinction

Compared with European-American students, Asian-American students express a somewhat greater ________ about their future performance, which may help to explain their impressive academic achievements.
A. unconditional positive regard
B. false consensus effect
C. pessimism
D. self-serving bias

C. pessimism

Compared with men, women are ________ effective in discerning whether a male-female couple is a genuine romantic couple or a posed phony couple. They are ________ effective in discerning which of two people in a photo is the other's supervisor.
A. less; more
B. less; less
C. more; less
D. more; more

D. more; more

Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates
A. generalization.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. discrimination.
D. cognitive learning.

A. generalization.

Compared with when they were only 20 years old, 60-year-olds
A. spend less time in deep sleep.
B. spend more time in paradoxical sleep.
C. complete the sleep cycle more slowly.
D. spend less time in NREM-1 sleep.

A. spend less time in deep sleep.

A consistent tendency to be shy is best described as a(n)
A. projection.
B. trait.
C. false consensus effect.
D. Oedipus complex.

B. trait.

Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.
A. predicts
B. causes
C. inhibits
D. is unrelated to

A. predicts

Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.
A. predicts
B. inhibits
C. causes
D. is unrelated to

A. predicts

Damage to the brain's visual perception track without any damage to the brain's visual action track is associated with a condition known as
A. blindsight.
B. change blindness.
C. parallel processing.
D. selective attention.

A. blindsight.

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
A. classical conditioning
B. observational learning
C. delayed reinforcement
D. immediate reinforcement

B. observational learning

A deep neural center activated when people smell some disgusting food or when they feel moral disgust in response to a perceived injustice is called the
A. telomere.
B. hypothalamus.
C. anterior cingulate cortex.
D. insula.

D. insula.

Deindividuation refers to
A. a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
B. the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior.
C. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
D. lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

A. a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
A. extrinsic motivation.
B. delayed reinforcers.
C. partial reinforcement.
D. latent learning.

A. extrinsic motivation.

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
A. latent learning.
B. partial reinforcement.
C. extrinsic motivation.
D. delayed reinforcers.

C. extrinsic motivation.

Destruction of an appetite-suppressing area within the hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to
A. cause the rat to become extremely fat.
B. increase the rat's basal metabolic rate.
C. lower the rat's set point for body weight.
D. lower the rat's blood insulin levels.

A. cause the rat to become extremely fat.

A dieter whose weight falls below his or her set point is likely to experience a(n)
A. decrease in hunger and an increase in metabolic rate.
B. increase in hunger and an increase in metabolic rate.
C. decrease in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.
D. increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.

D. increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate.

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called
A. cognitive dissonance.
B. social loafing.
C. implicit prejudice.
D. deindividuation.

A. cognitive dissonance.

A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)
A. immediate reinforcer.
B. primary reinforcer.
C. unconditioned stimulus.
D. conditioned stimulus.

D. conditioned stimulus

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed
A. learned helplessness.
B. the false consensus effect.
C. a fixation.
D. a reaction formation.

A. learned helplessness

During the course of a full night's sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in
A. NREM-1 sleep than in NREM-3 sleep.
B. REM sleep than in NREM-1 sleep.
C. NREM-3 sleep than in NREM-2 sleep.
D. REM sleep than in NREM-2 sleep.

B. REM sleep than in NREM-1 sleep.

Eating food more ________ leads to eating less food. This is especially true for ________.
A. slowly; men
B. rapidly; women
C. slowly; women
D. rapidly; men

A. slowly; men

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through group discussion is called
A. the mere exposure effect.
B. social facilitation.
C. group polarization.
D. ingroup bias.

C. group polarization

Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n)
A. negative reinforcer.
B. unconditioned response.
C. conditioned response.
D. positive reinforcer.

D. positive reinforcer.

Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc that
A. sometimes emotion precedes cognition.
B. the two-factor theory of emotion is essentially correct.
C. our thoughts are not influenced by our emotional states.
D. our normal feelings of love and anger are typically irrational.

A. sometimes emotion precedes cognition.

Exposure to bright light causes the
A. pineal gland to increase the production of melatonin.
B. thyroid gland to increase the production of melatonin.
C. thyroid gland to decrease the production of melatonin.
D. pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.

D. pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A. US; UR
B. CS; UR
C. UR; CR
D. CS; US

D. CS; US

The Eysencks believed that extraversion and emotionality are
A. genetically influenced.
B. aspects of self-esteem.
C. psychosexual stages.
D. reciprocal determinants.

A. genetically influenced.

The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of
A. shaping.
B. extrinsic motivation.
C. online testing.
D. latent learning.

D. latent learning.

Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
A. defense mechanisms.
B. personality traits.
C. psychosexual stages.
D. self-serving biases.

B. personality traits.

Felix was so preoccupied with his girlfriend's good looks that he failed to perceive any of her less admirable characteristics. This best illustrates the dangers of
A. sequential processing.
B. choice blindness.
C. selective attention.
D. dual processing.

C. selective attention.

Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.
A. cognitive dissonance
B. social exchange
C. the two-factor
D. scapegoat

A. cognitive dissonance

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
A. secondary reinforcement.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. shaping.
D. delayed reinforcement.

C. shaping.

A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a(n)
A. unpredictable number of responses has been made.
B. specified time period has elapsed.
C. unpredictable time period has elapsed.
D. specified number of responses has been made.

B. specified time period has elapsed.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
A. perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others.
B. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.
D. experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar.

C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to
A. maintain homeostasis.
B. lower the set point.
C. reduce the incentives.
D. reduce blood glucose levels.

A. maintain homeostasis.

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce
A. a drive.
B. basal metabolic rate.
C. an instinct.
D. the set point.

A. a drive.

Freire did very poorly on his last arithmetic test. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead his sixth-grade teacher to conclude that Freire did poorly because
A. he was not given enough time to complete the test.
B. his parents had an argument the evening before the test.
C. the test covered material that had not been adequately covered in class.
D. he is unmotivated to do well in school.

D. he is unmotivated to do well in school.

Freud is to psychoanalytic theory as Allport is to ________
A. humanistic
B. trait
C. social-cognitive
D. behavioral

B. trait

A frontal lobe area involved in ________ is ________ active in extraverts than in introverts.
A. addictive cravings; more
B. restraining behavior; less
C. aggression; more
D. empathy; less

B. restraining behavior; less

The fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others' behavior is influenced by
A. personality traits.
B. their level of motivation.
C. genetics.
D. assigned roles.

D. assigned roles.

The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to attribute a stranger's
A. friendliness to social role requirements.
B. act of kindness to a compassionate personality.
C. criminal behavior to a poor education.
D. lack of employment to a weak economy.

B. act of kindness to a compassionate personality.

Given an obese parent, boys are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity and girls are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity.
A. decreased; decreased
B. decreased; increased
C. increased; decreased
D. increased; increased

D. increased; increased

Hearing someone reading a neutral text in a happy-sounding voice is most likely to trigger
A. social loafing.
B. group polarization.
C. deindividuation.
D. mood contagion.

D. mood contagion.

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as
A. a physical need that usually triggers motivational arousal.
B. the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
C. an aroused tension state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
D. a rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of an entire species.

B. the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by
A.
Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning in infants.
B. Bandura's findings on observational learning and aggression in children.
C. Pavlov's findings on the conditioned salivary response.
D. Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.

D. Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by
A. Bandura's findings on observational learning and aggression in children.
B. Pavlov's findings on the conditioned salivary response.
C. Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.
D. Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning in infants.

C. Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. observational learning.
C. associative learning.
D. operant conditioning.

C. associative learning.

If we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ________ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ________ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle.
A. overestimate; overestimate
B. underestimate; overestimate
C. overestimate; underestimate
D. underestimate; underestimate

A. overestimate; overestimate

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of
A. groupthink.
B. deindividuation.
C. the bystander effect.
D. the mere exposure effect.

A. groupthink.

Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate
A. the catharsis of aggressive feelings.
B. parasympathetic nervous system activity.
C. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
D. empathy.

D. empathy.

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the
A. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
B. fundamental attribution error.
C. frustration-aggression principle.
D. mere exposure effect.

A. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

The impact of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is most clearly illustrated by
A. the tragic murder of Kitty Genovese just outside her New York apartment.
B. the increased number of suicides shortly after Marilyn Monroe's highly publicized death.
C. President John F. Kennedy's ill-fated decision to invade Cuba.
D. the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.

D. the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
A. operant conditioning.
B. respondent behavior.
C. observational learning.
D. spontaneous recovery.

C. observational learning

In addition to secreting orexin, the ________ monitors levels of the body's other appetite hormones.
A. hippocampus
B. amygdala
C. hypothalamus
D. cerebellum

C. hypothalamus

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)
A. conditioned stimulus.
B. conditioned response.
C. unconditioned response.
D. unconditioned stimulus.

D. unconditioned stimulus.

In an experiment to test the spillover effect, college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter's accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment were LEAST likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter's accomplice?
A. those who were asked to run in place after receiving the injection
B. those who were promised a large sum of money for participating in the experiment
C. those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused
D. those who were led to think the injection would produce no physiological arousal

C. those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused

In assessing candidates for spy missions during World War II, U.S. Army psychologists subjected them to simulated undercover conditions. This best illustrates the use of an assessment strategy favored by ________ theories.
A. trait
B. psychoanalytic
C. social-cognitive
D. humanistic

C. social-cognitive

In classical conditioning, the NS becomes a ________ after it reliably signals the impending occurrence of the ________.
A. CR; UR
B. UR; CR
C. US; CS
D. CS; US

D. CS; US

In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants' willingness to hire the applicants revealed
A. greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.
B. greater discrimination against overweight men than against overweight women.
C. no discrimination against either overweight men or overweight women.
D. equal levels of discrimination against both overweight men and overweight women.

A. greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
A. salivation to the sound of a tone.
B. salivation to the food in the mouth.
C. a tone.
D. the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.

D. the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.

In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences?
A. classical conditioning
B. operant conditioning
C. observational learning
D. latent learning

B. operant conditioning

Inattentional blindness is best described as a by-product of
A. daydreaming.
B. selective attention.
C. parallel processing.
D. blindsight.

B. selective attention.

Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be
A. sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished.
B. in favor of a more moderate position on the issue.
C. even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.
D. convinced that the death penalty should be retained.

C. even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.

Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates
A. informational social influence.
B. peripheral route persuasion.
C. the social-responsibility norm.
D. deindividuation.

B. peripheral route persuasion.

Insulin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by
A. liver.
B. hypothalamus.
C. pancreas.
D. stomach.

C. pancreas.

The interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with our mental processes is known as
A. cognitive neuroscience.
B. behavior genetics.
C. behaviorism
D. evolutionary psychology

A. cognitive neuroscience.

It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the
A. relative deprivation principle.
B. evolutionary perspective.
C. two-factor theory.
D. adaptation-level phenomenon.

B. evolutionary perspective.

It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
A. generalization
B. biological predispositions
C. primary reinforcers
D. spontaneous recovery

B. biological predispositions

Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
A. intermittent reinforcement.
B. discrimination.
C. higher-order conditioning.
D. spontaneous recovery.

B. discrimination.

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

A. the expression of emotion reduces our level of physiological arousal.
B. an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both physiological arousal and the subjective experience of emotion.
C. to experience emotion we must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the emotion.
D. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

D. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that
A. an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both physiological arousal and the subjective experience of emotion.
B. to experience emotion we must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the emotion.
C. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.
D. the expression of emotion reduces our level of physiological arousal.

C. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether
A. worker productivity is influenced by hourly wage rates.
B. aggressive behavior is influenced by threats of punishment.
C. academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept.
D. consumer buying habits are influenced by newspaper advertisements.

C. academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept

Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a(n)
A. discrimination.
B. stimulus.
C. spontaneous recovery.
D. conditioned reinforcement.

B. stimulus

Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates
A. unit bias.
B. the settling point.
C. social facilitation.
D. homeostasis.

A. unit bias.

Just after they taste a sweet liquid, mice are injected with a drug that produces an immune response. Later, the taste of the sweet liquid by itself triggers an immune response. This best illustrates
A. negative reinforcement.
B. observational learning.
C. classical conditioning.
D. cognitive learning.

C. classical conditioning.

Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his family's disapproval. Kentaro's behavior exemplifies the importance of
A. informational social influence.
B. the mere exposure effect.
C. normative social influence.
D. social facilitation.

C. normative social influence.

Lack of body fluids is to cold water as ________ is to ________.
A. homeostasis; basal metabolic rate
B. need; drive
C. need; incentive
D. instinct; set point

C. need; incentive

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?
A. observational learning
B. classical conditioning
C. operant conditioning
D. negative reinforcement

B. classical conditioning

A learned association between behaviors and resulting events is central to
A. latent learning.
B. intrinsic motivation.
C. classical conditioning.
D. operant conditioning.

D. operant conditioning.

Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with
A. self-serving bias.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. the false consensus effect.
D. an external locus of control.

D. an external locus of control.

Learned helplessness is most likely to promote
A. pessimism.
B. self-serving bias.
C. an internal locus of control.
D. unconditional positive regard.

A. pessimism.

Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date. Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. Luella's public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrates the power of
A. normative social influence.
B. social facilitation.
C. informational social influence.
D. deindividuation.

A. normative social influence.

Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. discrimination.
C. extinction.
D. generalization.

C. extinction.

Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. discrimination.
C. extinction.
D. generalization.

C. extinction.

Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer.
A. partial
B. positive
C. negative
D. conditioned

C. negative

Maureen is an introvert, who prefers staying in and reading a good book. Her friend Paula is an extrovert, who would much rather spend her time partying. In terms of their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion and express emotions,
A. Paula is better at recognition and Maureen is more expressive.
B. Both are equally expressive but neither is good at recognition.
C. Both are equally good at recognition but neither is very expressive.
D. Maureen is better at recognition and Paula is more expressive

D. Maureen is better at recognition and Paula is more expressive

Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. Consequently, she puts little effort into her job, even though she really wants a big raise. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in the operant conditioning of work habits.
A. cognitive processes
B. biological predispositions
C. spontaneous recovery
D. primary reinforcers

A. cognitive processes

Men and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their
A. self-reported emotions.
B. changes in heart rate.
C. facial expressions of emotion.
D. changes in respiration.

C. facial expressions of emotion.

Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to
A. be more inhibited about personally starting a fight on the school playground.
B. perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.
C.
the pain and injury experienced by victims of violent crime.
D. react with a sense of distress at the sight of two children fighting on the school playground.

B. perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because the
A. "learners" made so few learning errors under stressful circumstances.
B. "learners" obediently accepted painful shocks without any protest.
C. "teachers" actually enjoyed shocking another person.
D. "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

D. "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

Most recent participants reported feeling more happy than sad after rubberbands secured to the sides of their faces were stretched over the tops of their heads. Their reactions best illustrated
A. the spillover effect.
B. the adaptation-level principle.
C. the facial feedback effect.
D. the feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

C. the facial feedback effect.

Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)
A. homeostatic mechanism.
B. drive.
C. incentive.
D. instinct.

D. instinct.

Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)
A. instinct.
B. homeostatic mechanism.
C. incentive.
D. drive.

A. instinct.

Narcolepsy is a disorder in which a person
A. has difficulty falling and staying asleep.
B. experiences uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.
C. temporarily stops breathing during sleep.
D. has sudden uncontrollable seizures.

B. experiences uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.

Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding.
A. decrease; increase
B. increase; decrease
C. have no effect on; decrease
D. decrease; decrease

B. increase; decrease

Neural activity that reenacts and promotes recall of prior novel experiences is most closely associated with
A. slow-wave sleep.
B. sleep spindles.
C. hypnagogic sensations.
D. REM sleep.

A. slow-wave sleep.

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