This is any agent that causes a structural abnormality following fetal exposure during pregnancy.
T/F. An increased prevalence of a particular birth defect is usually what leads to the discovery of a teratogenic agent.
Methyl mercury was found to be a teratogen when it was dumped into the bay from a local factor (Chisso) and mother's ate the contaminated fish during pregnancy. It lead to increased incidence of birth defects that lead to an investigation. What was the name of this disease?
This is a known teratogen that is used to treat skin problems and nausea. It was originally given for nausea during pregnancy, but it caused face and limb abnormalities.
This is a known teratogen that was a therapeutic (antibiotic) that caused damage to developing LONG BONES and dental tissue.
T/F. Alcohol, nicotine, crack, methamphetamine, LCD, or PCP are NOT known teratogens.
False, they are
This is an infectious agent also known as the German Measles that can cause deafness and microcephaly.
Name four other infectious agents that are important fetal teratogens.
Name three maternal diseases (mother has them) that can be fetal teratogens.
T/F. Environmental agents such as organic compounds, mercury, PCB, herbices, and solvents are all important fetal teratogens.
When a fetus is exposed to a tertaogen, what two things are often the determining factor for the severity and the type of defect?
Time they were exposed (what trimester)
Dose of exposure
Certain stages of development are more vulnerable than others. In general, which is the more vulnerable trimester?
Repeat: This antibiotic causes irreversible tooth defects and diminished growth of LONG BONES.
T/F. Trimethadione and Phenytoin (Seizure meds) are known to cause IUGR (inuteral growth retardation), MR, and CV defects.
What is the relationship of the following to the incidence of strabismus?
1. Coffee: No relationship
2. Tea: No relationship
3. Alcohol: INVERSE relationship
4. Smoking: DIRECT relationship
Patients taking this acne medicine are required to take a pregnancy test before Rx is given (and monthly thereafter), pledge that they will not get pregnant during time of use, and have proof of contraception during use.
T/F. Non-smoking women ofter the age of 30 living with a smoker had much greater chance of delivering a premature baby.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Patient can develop IUGR (slow fetal growth), MR, _______, small _____ _____ (width, not height), and _______. They may also have no philtrum, a thin ______ lip and BEHAVIORAL problems.
Microcephaly (Small head)
Small Palpebral Fissures
What are the six main malformations caused by the VACTERL syndrome (due to oral contraceptive use during pregnancy).
Name the five TORCH infectious diseases.
Others (Syphilis, HIV)
What are two ways a pregnant individual can contract toxoplasmosis?
Handling/Consuming Contaminated Meat
What is the most common ocular sign of toxoplasmosis infection? Is it bilateral or unilateral? Is it peripheral or posterior pole?
Chorioretinitis (posterior uveitis)
Bilateral, posterior pole
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Syndrome: Patients may have ocular signs that include _____, cataract, and ______. They may present with systemic intracranial calcifications, seizures, hydrocephalus, _____, and deafness.
When should we be concerned with a fetus contracting syphalis from the mother?
After the 18 week (before that it is not problematic)
Congenital Syphilis: Ocular signs include chorioretinits, _______ _____, and optic atrophy. Patient may also present systemically with _____ abnormalities, deafness, hydrocephalus, MR, nasal abnormalities and this pathongnomic sign (specific). Patient may also have a _________ ______ found on the soles of feet, trunk and palms.
Hutchinson's teeth (****)
Congenital HIV: Ocular signs include HIV _________, CMV retinitis, _____, _______ sclera, and long palpebral fissures. Systemically the child may have a failure to thrive and be open to opportunistic infections.
Hypertelorism (Wide Telocanthus)
Rubella: Also called what? It may produce the following ocular signs: _____, _____, rubella retinopathy, and corneal and chorioretinits. Systemically the child may have heart defects, cerebral calcifications, MR, deafness, maculopapular rash, and ______ and ______.
When rubella is contracted in the 1st trimester it has an 85% chance of leading to what? (Rubella-specific IgM persists in these infants).
CRS (Congenital Rubella Syndrome)
When CRS (congenital rubella syndrome) occurs in an infant and they develop cataracts are these usually bilateral or unilateral?
(25% unilateral with microphthalmos)
T/F. A very young infant with CRS and large hazy corneas may develop glaucoma (10%). What is the treatment for this?
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): Patient may have keratitis, chorioretinits, or be _______. What is unique about this disease in terms of ocular signs? Systemically the patient may have IUGR, cerebral calcification, MR, deafness, and _____.
Ocular damage is rare
Herpes Simplex: Child may have acute ___________, HSV _____, chorioretinits, CAT, and microphthalmos. Systemically they may have a skin rash, _____ or _____.