← History Review VII Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Coal/Steel Greatly increased in production during 1880-1910 J.P. Morgan Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons" Trusts Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies. Sherman Anti-Trust act First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions Haymarket riot 100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings. Populist Party U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies Walt Whitman United States poet who celebrated the greatness of America (1819-1892) Gilded Age 1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor Public Entertainment Baseball, Movies, Books were used to entertain the American People during this time Jane Addams 1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom., the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes Suffragists Those (mostly female) who were active in seeking voting rights for women as an inherent right for all individuals in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Taft 27th President of the United States and later chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1857-1930) Louis D. Brandeis This brilliant lawyer and later a justice of the Supreme court spoke and wrote widely about the "curse of bigness." He thought the government should help small businesses., an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. In addition, he helped lead the American Zionist movement Annexation the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation Spanish American war In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence Open Door Policy A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China. Missionary Diplomacy Woodrow Wilson's policy contingent on the belief that it was America's responsibility and destiny to spread its institutions and values to the far corners of the globe Zimmerman Telegram March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico. Propaganda information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. League of Nations an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations Electricity energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor Andrew Carneige He was a dominant innovator who controlled the steel industry and was the founder of Carneige Steel Company. He invented the "bessemer converter". His mill also had smelting, refining, and rolling in into one unified operation. He donated $350 million to worthy causes an $30 million to his will and testimony. He was a host of wealthy people, not the poor. Standard Oil Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller Philanthropist someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being Anarchists people who oppose organized government Blue Collar member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage White Collar salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature Boss Tweed Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine Mark Twain United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910) Labor Laws Laws which regulated how workers could be paid and treated NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional Legal Precedent a court decision that furnishes authority for deciding subsequent cases involving identical or similar facts Hawaii a state in the United States in the central Pacific on the Hawaiian Islands Alaska a state in northwestern North America Imperialism A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. Panama canal Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746) Central Powers in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies Lusitania American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI Mobilization act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops" Treaty Of Versailles Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons. Thomas Edison American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures. (p. 703) John D. Rockefeller Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. Tariffs Taxes on imports or exports Public Schools schools supported by taxes Pinkerton "Detective" agency or private police hired by the Federal Gov't to guard the President prior to 1865 and used by business owners to intimidate Unions with strong arm tactics. Upton Sinclair United States writer whose novels argued for social reform (1878-1968) Middle Class the social class between the lower and upper classes Chinese Exclusion Act Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease. BaseBall/Movies Forms of entertainment for the American Citizens during the 1850's-1920's Consumer Protection Law passed by government needed because consumers had no protection- food and drugs were unsafe McKinley 25th President of the United States Public Good a shared good or service for which it would be impractical to make consumers pay individually and to exclude nonpayers Social Darwinism The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion. Cuba/Philippines The Philippines where a US colony until 1991 Gunboat Diplomacy diplomacy in which the nations threaten to use force in order to obtain their objectives Armistice a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms "Rags to Riches" Stories written by Horatio Alger Jr.; idea is that somebody starts off very poor and works themselves up to riches; most people only dreamed of this; was a symbol of progress Monopoly (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller Immigration migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there) 1893 Depression Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike. Jacob Riis A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890. Mass Media forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people Urbanization the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban Slums poor, run-down urban neighborhoods Progressivism The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution. T. Roosevelt President (1901-1909) hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said 'Speak softly but carry a big stick' Federal reserve the central bank of the United States, controls America's money supply, by controlling the interest rates of banks, also america's central bank Trade Surplus when a country exports more than it imports U.s.s Maine Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American WarDo Dollar Diplomacy Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries Neutrality nonparticipation in a dispute or war Prohibition a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages, 18th amendment in 1920 14 Points Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.