Genetics 2

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34 terms

agarose

a gel-like substance used in bacterial cultures and electrophoresis

amino acid

any one of several building blocks of protein

artificial selection

the process of breeding two organisms with desirable characteristics to produce offspring that have the advantages of both parents

biotechnology

the combination of technology and the biological sciences

DNA

the material found in all cells that contains genetic information about that organism

electrophoresis

a tool that allows scientists to separate mixtures of molecules according to size; usually for DNA or proteins

expressed

the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait

gene

a segment of DNA (on a chromosome) that contains the code for a specific trait

gene expression

(like expressed), the result of activated (turned on) genes

genetic engineering

a set of technologies that humans use to alter the genetic instructions of an organism by substituting DNA molecules

genetic recombination

the formation of a new combination of genes during sexual reproduction

heredity

the passing of traits from parent to offspring

mutation

any alteration in the sequence of DNA

recombination

the additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in a unique combination of genes

replicate

to copy (as in DNA)

ribosome

one of the tiny structures in the cell that is the site of protein synthesis

selective breeding

the process of choosing a few organisms with desirable traits to serve as the parents of the next generations

splice

to join two things together

subunit (nucleotide)

the section of a DNA molecule that contains a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base

synthesis

the life process that involves combining simple substances into more complex substances

trait

a characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring through genes

transcription

the process of reading a segment of DNA and turning it into a segment of mRNA; carried out in the nucleus

translation

the process of reading a segment of mRNA and turning it into a string of amino acids; carried out at the ribosome

dominant

the trait that gets expressed in homozygous or heterozygous state

recessive

the trait that is masked in the heterozygous state, but show in the homozygous state

genotype

the genes for a trait (ex: Tt, TT, tt)

phenotype

the physical make-up (ex: blue eyes, brown hair); how you appear

helicase

enzyme responsible for unzipping DNA in replication

DNA polymerase

enzyme responsible for adding nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA during replication

mRNA

messenger RNA; carries transcribed DNA segment to ribosome

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; makes up a ribosome

tRNA

transfer RNA; carries amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis

codon

a section of 3 bases of RNA read by the ribosome which tells the corresponding amino acid

anticodon

the complement to the codon; carried by tRNA

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