What happened to the prices of the stocks of the major industries between May 1928 and September 1929? What was the cause of this movement?
The average price of stocks increased over 40%
What were the major causes of the Great Depression?
- Overproduction and under consumption
- Uneven distribution of income
- Stock market speculation ---buying on margin
- Excessive use of credit
What was the result of the closing of over 9,000 American banks between 1930 and 1933?
The total money supply of the nation fell by more than a third
During the Depression, what happened to the city and state relief systems in the industrial Northeast and Midwest?
Many relief systems collapsed
What problems did farmers in the "Dust Bowl" of the South and Midwest experience between 1929 and 1932?
A decline in income by 60%, excessive drought and increasing heat
What were some of the reasons Black Americans suffered special hardships during the Depression?
Whites wanted jobs and believed they had first claim to any job before blacks
What events occured in the Scottsboro case in the 1930s?
Nine black boys were accused of rape then sentenced to death in Alabama. Later, with assistance from the Communist party and the NAACP, the Supreme Court overturned the convictions and gave the boys their freedom.
What additional problem(s) did Hispanics suffer during the Depression?
- They could NOT attend public schools or hospitals
- They were excluded from federal relief programs
- Thousands were forced to return to Mexico
Who were the Nisei and what was the main goal of the Japanese-Americans Citizen League?
The Nisei were educated Japanes-Americans. The Japanese-Americans Citizen League encouraged them to become more assimilated to American culture.
What changes did women in the work force experience during the Depression?
- There were more married women working
- Low pay
- More cash assistance but less work relief
What was the state of the American feminist movement by the end of the 1930s?
It had virtually disappeared
What did the sociological study of Muncie, Indiana, in the mid-1930s reveal about the American public's attitude to traditional individualism?
Americans remained committed to individualism and capitalism
Whom did many Americans blame for the Depression and how did they react?
Themselves; Many were so ashamed that they refused to leave their houses
Which group was a primary focus of intellectual writers, popular writers, and photographers portray during the Depression?
Poor rural families
What were some of the major literary works of the 1930s that addressed the social problems of the 1920s?
- Henry Luce --- "Time", "Life", and "Fortune" magazines
- Erskine Caldwell --- "Tobacco Road"
- Richard Wright --- "Native Son"
- John Dos Passos --- "U.S.A." triology
- Clifford Odet --- "Waiting for Lefty"
- Dale Carnegie --- "How to Win Friends and Influence People"
What did the most popular radio shows, movies and literature of the Depression reflect?
romance and escapism
What kinds of activities did the American Communist Party of the 1930s engage in prompting?
The Spanish Civil War, the hunger march on Washington, defense of Scottsboro boys
What responses did Herbert Hoover have in the early years of the Depression? Why did he have that particular response?
Why did the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929 fail to improve conditions for farmers?
Because voluntarism failed. Overproduction could not be controlled.
How did Hoover respond to the domestic crisis in 1931?
He established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
What was the purpose of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation? Was it effective?
It's prupose was to provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other businesses. It failed to deal directly with the economic crisis to produce recovery.
How did Hoover's reluctance to spend large amounts of federal funds result in a major failure to deal with the Depression?
What kinds of actions did the farmers engage in during 1932?
Organized the Farmers' Holiday Association and the Bonus Army march on Washington
What were the goals of the "Bonus Army" for their 1932 "March on Washington"? What was the outcome?
WWI veterans wanted immediate payment of promised bonuses. Congress did not pass the bill and Hoover used tanks and tear gas to break up Hoovervilles. It virtually destroyed Hoover's chances for reelection in 1932.
Who were the canidates in the 1932 election and what were their parties? Who won?
- Franklin D. Roosevelt --- Democrats
- Herbert Hoover --- Republicans
- Norman Thomas --- Socialists
What ideas did FDR use to gain the attention of the public during the election of 1932 campaign?