Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism---Chapter 6 Microbial Growth---Chapter 7 The Control of Microbial Growth

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Exam 2

b. Protons

In Figure 5.8, the path labeled (2) is the flow of


Select one:


a. Electrons.

b. Protons.

c. Energy.

d. Water.

e. Glucose.

Which of the following uses CO2 for carbon and H2 for energy?


Select one:


a. Chemoautotroph

b. Chemoheterotroph

c. Photoautotroph

d. Photoheterotroph

a. Chemoautotroph

c. NAD+

Which compound is being reduced in the reaction shown in Figure 5.1?


Select one:


a. Isocitric acid and -ketoglutaric acid

b. -ketoglutaric acid and NAD+

c. NAD+

d. NADH

e. NADH and isocitric acid

The advantage of the pentose phosphate pathway is that it produces all of the following EXCEPT


Select one:


a. Precursors for nucleic acids.

b. Precursors for the synthesis of glucose.

c. Three ATPs.

d. NADPH.

e. Precursors for the synthesis of amino acids.

Three ATPs.

b. Transamination

What type of reaction is in Figure 5.2?


Select one:


a. Decarboxylation

b. Transamination

c. Dehydrogenation

d. Oxidation

e. Reduction

Which one of the following would you predict is an allosteric inhibitor of the Krebs cycle enzyme, -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase?


Select one:


a. Citric acid

b. -ketoglutaric acid

c. NAD+

d. NADH

e. ADP

d. NADH

Which of the following compounds is NOT an enzyme?


Select one:


a. Dehydrogenase

b. Cellulase

c. Coenzyme A

d. -galactosidase

e. Sucrase

c. Coenzyme A

b. This process occurs anaerobically

Select one:


a. This process requires O2.

b. This process occurs anaerobically.

a. This process requires O2.

Select one:


a. This process requires O2.

b. This process occurs anaerobically.

An enzyme, citrate synthase, in the Krebs cycle is inhibited by ATP. This is an example of all of the following EXCEPT


Select one:


a. Allosteric inhibition.

b. Competitive inhibition.

c. Feedback inhibition.

d. Noncompetitive inhibition.

e. Beta oxidation.

b. Competitive inhibition.

Which of the following statements about anaerobic respiration is false?


Select one:


a. It involves glycolysis only.

b. It involves the Krebs cycle.

c. It involves the reduction of nitrate.

d. It generates ATP.

e. It requires cytochromes.

a. It involves glycolysis only.

In green and purple bacteria, electrons to reduce CO2 come from


Select one:


a. CO2.

b. H2O.

c. C6H12O6.

d. Sunlight.

e. Chlorophyll.

a. CO2.

What is the fate of pyruvic acid in an organism that uses aerobic respiration?


Select one:


a. It is reduced to lactic acid.

b. It is oxidized in the Krebs cycle.

c. It is oxidized in the electron transport chain.

d. It is catabolized in glycolysis.

e. It is reduced in the Krebs cycle.

b. It is oxidized in the Krebs cycle.

b. It would bind to b.

How would a noncompetitive inhibitor interfere with a reaction involving the enzyme shown in Figure 5.3?


Select one:


a. It would bind to a.

b. It would bind to b.

c. It would bind to c.

d. It would bind to d.

e. Can't tell.

b. M. tuberculosis produces urease.

A urease test is used to identify Myobacterium tuberculosis because


Select one:


a. Urease is a sign of tuberculosis.

b. M. tuberculosis produces urease.

c. Urea accumulates during tuberculosis.

d. Some bacteria reduce nitrate ion.

e. M. bovis can cause tuberculosis.

Which of the following statements about substrate-level phosphorylation is false?


Select one:


a. It involves the direct transfer of a high-energy phosphate group from an intermediate metabolic compound to ADP.

b. No final electron acceptor is required.

c. It occurs in glycolysis.

d. The oxidation of intermediate metabolic compounds releases energy that is used to generate ATP.

e. It occurs in the Krebs cycle.

d. The oxidation of intermediate metabolic compounds releases energy that is used to generate ATP.

c. c

Which of the graphs in Figure 5.5 best illustrates the activity of an enzyme that is saturated with substrate?


Select one:


a. a

b. b

c. c

d. d

e. e

d. d

Refer to Figure 5.8. In aerobic respiration, where is water formed?


Select one:


a. a

b. b

c. c

d. d

e. e

a. a

What is the most acidic place in Figure 5.8?


Select one:


a. a

b. b

c. c

d. d

e. e

Assume you are growing bacteria on a lipid medium that started at pH 7. The action of bacterial lipases should cause the pH of the medium to


Select one:


a. Increase.

b. Decrease.

c. Stay the same.

b. Decrease

e. Substrate-level phosphorylation

How is ATP generated in the reaction shown in Figure 5.4?


Select one:


a. Glycolysis

b. Fermentation

c. Photophosphorylation

d. Oxidative phosphorylation

e. Substrate-level phosphorylation

Which organism is NOT correctly matched to its energy source?


Select one:


a. Photoheterotroph - light

b. Photoautotroph - CO2

c. Chemoautotroph - Fe2+

d. Chemoheterotroph - glucose

e. Chemoautotroph - NH3

b. Photoautotroph - CO2

Fatty acids are catabolized in


Select one:


a. The Krebs cycle.

b. The electron transport chain.

c. Glycolysis.

d. The pentose phosphate pathway.

e. The Entner Doudoroff pathway.

a. The Krebs cycle.

Assume you are growing bacteria on a lipid medium that started at pH 7. The action of bacterial lipases should cause the pH of the medium to


Select one:


a. Increase.

b. Decrease.

c. Stay the same.

b. Decrease.

b. It would bind to b.

How would a noncompetitive inhibitor interfere with a reaction involving the enzyme shown in Figure 5.3?


Select one:


a. It would bind to a.

b. It would bind to b.

c. It would bind to c.

d. It would bind to d.

e. Can't tell.

In noncyclic photophosphorylation, O2 is produced from


Select one:


a. CO2.

b. H2O.

c. C6H12O6.

d. Sunlight.

e. Chlorophyll.

b. H2O.

e. e

In Figure 5.8, where is ATP produced?


Select one:


a. a

b. b

c. c

d. d

e. e

a. a

What is the most acidic place in Figure 5.8?


Select one:


a. a

b. b

c. c

d. d

e. e

b. M. tuberculosis produces urease.

A urease test is used to identify Myobacterium tuberculosis because


Select one:


a. Urease is a sign of tuberculosis.

b. M. tuberculosis produces urease.

c. Urea accumulates during tuberculosis.

d. Some bacteria reduce nitrate ion.

e. M. bovis can cause tuberculosis.

b. b

The graph at the left in Figure 5.7 shows the reaction rate for an enzyme at its optimum temperature. Which graph shows enzyme activity at a higher temperature?


Select one:


a. a

b. b

c. c

d. d

e. e

The advantage of the pentose phosphate pathway is that it produces all of the following EXCEPT


Select one:


a. Precursors for nucleic acids.

b. Precursors for the synthesis of glucose.

c. Three ATPs.

d. NADPH.

e. Precursors for the synthesis of amino acids.

c. Three ATPs.

c. plasma membrane

In Figure 5.8, the structure labeled (1) is


Select one:


a. NAD+.

b. ATP synthase.

c. Plasma membrane.

d. Cell wall.

e. Cytoplasm.

b. Transamination

What type of reaction is in Figure 5.2?


Select one:


a. Decarboxylation

b. Transamination

c. Dehydrogenation

d. Oxidation

e. Reduction

In green and purple bacteria, electrons to reduce CO2 come from


Select one:


a. CO2.

b. H2O.

c. C6H12O6.

d. Sunlight.

e. Chlorophyll.

a. CO2.

Which of the following is NOT necessary for respiration?


Select one:


a. Cytochromes

b. Flavoproteins

c. A source of electrons

d. Oxygen

e. Quinones

d. Oxygen

What is the fate of pyruvic acid in an organism that uses aerobic respiration?


Select one:


a. It is reduced to lactic acid.

b. It is oxidized in the Krebs cycle.

c. It is oxidized in the electron transport chain.

d. It is catabolized in glycolysis.

e. It is reduced in the Krebs cycle.

b. It is oxidized in the Krebs cycle.

Which one of the following would you predict is an allosteric inhibitor of the Krebs cycle enzyme, -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase?


Select one:


a. Citric acid

b. -ketoglutaric acid

c. NAD+

d. NADH

e. ADP

d. NADH

Which of the following uses glucose for carbon and energy?


Select one:


a. Chemoautotroph

b. Chemoheterotroph

c. Photoautotroph

d. Photoheterotroph

b. Chemoheterotroph

An enzyme, citrate synthase, in the Krebs cycle is inhibited by ATP. This is an example of all of the following EXCEPT


Select one:


a. Allosteric inhibition.

b. Competitive inhibition.

c. Feedback inhibition.

d. Noncompetitive inhibition.

e. Beta oxidation.

b. Competitive inhibition

Which of the following compounds is NOT an enzyme?
A) Dehydrogenase
B) Cellulase
C) Coenzyme A
D) β-galactosidase
E) Sucrase

C) Coenzyme A

Which organism is NOT correctly matched to its energy source?
A) Photoheterotroph — light
B) Photoautotroph — CO2
C) Chemoautotroph — Fe2+
D) Chemoheterotroph — glucose
E) Chemoautotroph —NH3

B) Photoautotroph-CO2

Which of the following statements about anaerobic respiration is false?
A) It involves glycolysis only.
B) It involves the Krebs cycle.
C) It involves the reduction of nitrate.
D) It generates ATP.
E) It requires cytochromes.

A) It involves glycolysis

Fatty acids are catabolized in
A) The Krebs cycle.
B) The electron transport chain.
C) Glycolysis.
D) The pentose phosphate pathway.
E) The Entner Doudoroff pathway.

A) The krebs cycle

Which of the following is the best definition of oxidative phosphorylation?
A) Electrons are passed through a series of carriers to O2
. B) The energy released as carrier molecules are oxidized is used to generate ATP
. C) The energy released in the reduction of carrier molecules is used to generate ATP.
D) The transfer of a high-energy phosphate group to ADP.

B) The energy released as carrier molecules are oxidized is used to generate ATP

Which of the following statements about substrate-level phosphorylation is false?
A) It involves the direct transfer of a high-energy phosphate group from an intermediate metabolic compound to ADP.
B) No final electron acceptor is required.
C) It occurs in glycolysis.
D) The oxidation of intermediate metabolic compounds releases energy that is used to generate ATP.
E) It occurs in the Krebs cycle.

D) The oxidation of intermediate metabolic compounds releases energy that is used to generate ATP

Which of the following statements about photophosphorylation is false?
A) Light liberates an electron from chlorophyll.
B) The oxidation of carrier molecules releases energy.
C) Energy from oxidation reactions is used to generate ATP from ADP.
D) It requires CO2.
E) It occurs in photosynthesizing cells.

D) it requires CO2

A strictly fermentative bacterium produces energy
A) By glycolysis only.
B) By aerobic respiration only.
C) By fermentation or aerobic respiration.
D) Only in the absence of oxygen.
E) Only in the presence of oxygen.

...

Which of the following statements about beta oxidation is false?
A) It is a method of catabolizing fatty acids.
B) It involves the formation of 2-carbon units.
C) It involves the formation of acetyl-CoA.
D) It is a step in glycolysis.
E) It is used in petroleum degradation.

D) it is a step in glycolysis

In noncyclic photophosphorylation, O2is produced from
A) CO2.
B) H2O.
C) C6H12O6.
D) Sunlight.
E) Chlorophyll.

B) H2O

Which of the following is the best definition of fermentation? A) The reduction of glucose to pyruvic acid
B) The oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors
C) The complete catabolism of glucose to CO2 and H2O
D) The production of energy by substrate-level phosphorylation
E) The production of ethanol from glucose

B) The oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors

Which of the following is NOT necessary for respiration?
A) Cytochromes
B) Flavoproteins
C) A source of electrons
D) Oxygen
E) Quinones

D) Oxygen

Which one of the following would you predict is an allosteric inhibitor of the Krebs cycle enzyme, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase?
A) Citric acid
B) α-ketoglutaric acid
C) NAD+
D) NADH E) ADP

...

Which of the following uses glucose for carbon and energy? A) Chemoautotroph
B) Chemoheterotroph
C) Photoautotroph
D) Photoheterotroph

B) Chemoheterotroph

Which of the following has bacteriochlorophylls and uses alcohols for carbon?
A) Chemoautotroph
B) Chemoheterotroph
C) Photoautotroph
D) Photoheterotroph

D) Photoheterotroph

Cyanobacteria are a type of
A) Chemoautotroph.
B) Chemoheterotroph.
C) Photoautotroph.
D) Photoheterotroph.

C) Photoautotroph

Which statements are true? 1—Electron carriers are located at ribosomes. 2—ATP is a common intermediate between catabolic and anabolic pathways. 3—ATP is used for the long-term storage of energy and so is often found in storage granules. 4—Anaerobic organisms are capable of respiration. 5—ATP is generated by the flow of protons across the cell membrane
.A) 2, 4, 5
B) 1, 3, 4
C) 2, 3, 5
D) 1, 2, 3
E) All

A) 2, 4, 5

C2H5OH (Ethanol) ---Acetobacter--> C2H3OOH (Acetic acid) Which of the following is true about this reaction?
A) This process requires O2.
B) This process occurs anaerobically.

A) This process requires O2

C6H12O6(Glucose) ----Saccharomyces---> 2C2H5OH (Ethanol) + 2CO2 Which of the following is true about this reaction?
A) This process requires O2.
B) This process occurs anaerobically.

B) This process occurs anaerobically.

NO3- (nitrate ion) + 2H+ ---Pseudomonas---> NO2- (nitrite ion) + H2O Which of the following is true about this reaction?
A) This process requires O2.
B) This process occurs anaerobically.

B) This process occurs anaerobically.

2H+ --E. coli----> H2O Which of the following is true about this reaction?
A) This process requires O2
. B) This process occurs anaerobically

A) This process requires O2

Assume you are working for a chemical company and are responsible for growing a yeast culture that produces ethanol. The yeasts are growing well on the maltose medium but are not producing alcohol. What is the most likely explanation?
A) The maltose is toxic.
B) O2 is in the medium.
C) Not enough protein is provided
. D) The temperature is too low.
E) The temperature is too high

B) O2 is in the medium.

The rates of O2 and glucose consumption by a bacterial culture are shown in Figure 5.6. Assume a bacterial culture was grown in a glucose medium without O2. Then O2 was added at the time marked X. The data indicate that
A) These bacteria don't use O2.
B) These bacteria get more energy anaerobically
. C) Aerobic metabolism is more efficient than fermentation.
D) These bacteria can't grow anaerobically.

. C) Aerobic metabolism is more efficient than fermentation.

An enzyme, citrate synthase, in the Krebs cycle is inhibited by ATP. This is an example of all of the following EXCEPT A) Allosteric inhibition.
B) Competitive inhibition
.C) Feedback inhibition.
D) Noncompetitive inhibition.
E) Beta oxidation.

B) Competitive inhibition

A shipping company employee notices that the inside of ships' hulls where ballast water is stored are deteriorating. The hull paint contained cyanide to prevent microbial growth. Bacteria were growing on the hulls. You can therefore conclude that the
A) Bacteria were using aerobic respiration.
B) Bacteria were using anaerobic respiration.
C) Bacteria were growing by fermentation
. D) Bacteria were using cytochromes.
E) Bacteria were photosynthetic

C) Bacteria were growing by fermentation

Beggiatoa bacteria get energy by oxidizing S2-to S6+. This means they take ________ for their ________.
A) electrons; electron transport chain
B) electrons; fermentation
C) protons; NAD+
D) sulfur; photophosphorylation
E) glucose; glycolysis

A) electrons; electron transport chain

A bacterial culture grown in a glucose-peptide medium causes the pH to increase. The bacteria are most likely
A) Fermenting the glucose.
B) Oxidizing the glucose.
C) Using the peptides.
D) Not growing.

C) Using the peptides.

Gallionella bacteria can get energy from the reaction Fe2+ → Fe3+. This reaction is an example of
A) Oxidation.
B) Reduction.
C) Fermentation.
D) Photophosphorylation.
E) The Calvin-Benson cycle.

A) Oxidation.

Rhodopseudomonas is an anaerobic photoautotroph that uses organic compounds as an electron donor. It is also capable of chemoheterotrophic metabolism. Diagram the metabolic pathways of this bacterium.
Identify the catabolic pathways used by the following bacteria.
Pseudomonas
Lactobacillus
Alcaligenes
Escherichia

Pseudomonas Oxidizes glucose
Lactobacillus Ferments glucose
Alcaligenes Neither oxidizes nor ferments glucose
Escherichia Oxidizes and ferments glucose

Which of the following reactions produces the most molecules of ATP during aerobic metabolism?
a) glucose -->glucose 6 phosphate
b) phosphoenolpyruvic acid -->pyruvic acid
c) glucose --> pyruvic acid
d) acetyl CoA -->CO2 + H2O
e) succinic acid -->fumaric acid

d) acetyl CoA -->CO2 + H2O

Which of the following processes does not generate ATP?
a) photophosphorylation
b) the Calvin-Benson Cycle
c) oxidative phosphorylation
d) substrate-level phosphorylation
e) none of the above

b) the Calvin-Benson Cycle

Which of the following compounds has the greatest amount of energy for a cell?
a) CO2
b) ATP
c) glucose
d) O2
e) lactic acid

c) glucose

Which of the following is the best definition of the Krebs cycle?
a) the oxidation of pyruvic acid
b) the way cells produce O2
c) a series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid
d) a method of producing ATP by phosphorylating ADP
e) a series of chemical reactions in which ATP is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid

c) a series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid

Which is the following is the best definition of respiration?
a) a sequence of carrier molecules with O2 as the final electron acceptor
b) a sequence of carrier molecules with an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor
c) a method of generating APT
d) the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O
e) a series of reactions in which pyruvic acid is oxidized to CO2 and H2O

b) a sequence of carrier molecules with an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor

Which produces the most lactic acid?
a) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35degrees C with O2 for 5 days
b) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35 degrees C without O2 for 5 days
c) both a and b
d) neither a nor b

b) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35 degrees C without O2 for 5 days

Which culture produces the most ATP?
a) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35degrees C with O2 for 5 days
b) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35 degrees C without O2 for 5 days
c) both a and b
d) neither a nor b

a) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35degrees C with O2 for 5 days

Which culture uses the most glucose?
a) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35degrees C with O2 for 5 days
b) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35 degrees C without O2 for 5 days
c) both a and b
d) neither a nor b

b) E.coli growing in glucose broth at 35 degrees C without O2 for 5 days

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