when were the articles of confederation adopted?
when were the articles of confederation approved?
what did the articles of confederation establish?
a limited national government - most power was with the states
what one branch of givernment did the articles contain?
legislative made up of delegates from the states
congress - responsible for making laws
leaded by the president - puts laws into action
courts and judges - interprets the laws
in the articles of confederation what happened to the branches?
congress did the jobs of both legislative and executive branches
where were courts under the articles?
each state had a court system
a plan of government that describes parts of government and duties or powers
primary forms of government in the new nation was?
which state was first to give voting rights to ordinary people?
constitution of pennsylvania contained:
new voting rights, unicameral legislature, representatives ran for office every year
state who currently has a unicameral legislature?
government by the people
government run by people through elected representatives
what worried wealthy males about the articles?
they gave too much power to ordinary citizens who were less educated
debt after the revolution?
what did states lacking gold/silver do?
printed paper money
what did the nationalists want to do?
strengthen the national government
some famous nationalists?
washington, james madison and alexander hamilton
thomas paine and the nationalists agreed that...
america was a model for the world
what was the annapolis convention for?
to discuss economic problems and create a federal plan for regulating interstate and foreign trade
who attended the annapolis convention?
12 delegates from five states
what did the annapolis delegates decide?
to call a convention in philadelphia in 1787
gold or silver coin
massachusettes passed the most direct tax ever attempting to pay off war debt. what was it?
a tax that must be paid in specie, not paper money
what massachusettesians rebelled against the new tax?
the farmers in the west - reminded them of taxes that started the revolution
a massachusettes war veteran facing the possibility of being jailed for his debts
what did shays' rebellion do?
citizens drove off tax collectors, protested with petitions and public meetings, forced courts to close, small army marched toward springfield
who quieted shays' rebellion?
the state government
what did shays' rebellion demonstrate?
steps had to be taken to strengthen national government and avoid civil unrest
what delegates attended the philadelphia convention (called from annapolis)
delegates from 12 states (all but rhode island)
who recorded the proceedings of the philadelphia convention in 1787 and what ws it called
james madison Journal of the Federal Convention
in four months, philadelphia convention produced the constitution. the meeting was called
the constitutional convention
has governed US for more than 200 years
delegates who attended the constitutional convention:
55 educated white males, 1/3 owned slaves, 6 planters, 36 lawyers
father of the constitution
what did madison's philosophy lead him to believe
people are naturally selfish creatures driven by emotions and personal interests
what writers did madison draw from?
enlightenment philosophers like jean-jacques rousseau
who was elected president unanimously?
who submitted the virginia plan?
edmund randolph of virginia
what did the virginia plan contain?
legislature could tax, regulate trade and veto, three branches, members of congress determined by states population
who proposed the new jersey plan?
william patterson of new jersey
what did the new jersey plan contain?
congress could tax and regulate trade, three branches, unicameral congress with equal votes for states
which plan (VA or NJ) kept power with nation
which plan (VA or NJ) gave power to states
who introduced the great compromise?
rogers sherman and oliver ellsworth
what did the great compromise do?
created a legislature with two housess (senate and the house)
how many representatives in senate?
how many representatives in house?
depend on population
who was counted under the three-fifths compromise
3/5 of the slave population were counted for population
when did convention aprrove the constitution final draft
september 17 1787
how many times has the constitution been amended?
a system in which power is shared among state and national authorities
federal system of government
reserved for the states
delegated to federal government
federal and state government both hold them
each branch has its own area of authority, but no one branch has complete power over the government
separation of powers
each branch has the power to stop other branches in certain ways
checks and balances
which part of congress is more responsible for voters?
what statement gives congress great power?
the elastic clause
how many states had to ratify the constitution?
9 out of 13
favored the constitution
a series of 85 papers making the case for the constitution
a group concerned only with its own interests
opposed the constitution
a strong national government
it was a threat to state government and the rights of individuals
the constitution was submitted for approva on
september 28 1787
federalist advantages to promote constitution?
articles had serious flaws, united around the constitution, well-organized national group, washington's support
georgia ratified beacause...
they feared a war with native americans
wrote rights for virginia constitution that were added to the us constitution
first ten ammendments of constitution
bill of rights
bill of rights were in effect in
december 15 1791
who was against bill of rights and why?
federalists - saw no need
who was for bill of rights and why?
anti-federalists - if rights were not spelled out, they would be considered unenumerated powers of government
new york city's federal hall
temporary home for the new government
who was the first president?
washington was elected by electoral college in a unanimous vote
vice president under washington?
problems facing the new nation
massive war debt, no capital, no federal officers
group of federal leaders
attorney general, chief law officer and legal advisor under washington
secretary of war under the articles and washington
department of state under washington
secretary of treasury
chief author of declaration of independence
country's internal matters
biggest ally of the new country
alexander hamilton was this during the revolution
private secretary to washington
believe in government (jefferson/hamilton)
jefferson didnt hamilton did
term of office
served as capital city for ten years while a new capital was built
stated the capital would be 10 sq. miles near mt. vernon along potomac river
residence act of 1790
african american mathematician and inventor who was appointed to the commission to survey city
developed city plan for DC