An example of a crime that a juvenile can be arrested but not an adult?
curfew, truancy, runaway
A medieval English doctrine that sanctioned the right of the crown to intervene in a natural family reactions whenever a childs welfare was threatened.
The term defining the life interval between childhood and adulthood is called?
Actions or behavior that would NOT be defined as criminal if adults committed them?
Life course theory contends one cultural background such as location in time and ___is an element of shaping a persons life course in delinquency?
Juveniles are more liekly to be held for adult trial if they are arrested for__?
Violent Part 1 offenses
Juvenile Courts Statistics are often critized, much like UCRs for only measuring crimes that ___?
come to attention of the court
Respondents not telling the truth when filling out a self report questionnaire, typically refers to problems associated with ___?
The term incidence of delinquency refers to___?
frequency of offending or number of delinquent events
The term prevalence of delinquency refers to ___?
number of young people involved in delinquent behavior
Cesare Beccaria viewed punishment as ___?
a necessary evil
Jeremy Bentham purported that criminal behavior is a result of____?
Positivist believe that when causes of human behavior are discovered, human behavior can be ___?
Lombroso referred to a born criminal as__?
According to ____ the aim of punishment is the protection of society?
An unstated or explicit agreement between a people and the their government as to the rights and obligation of each child is ___?
Which of the folowing did Freud believe was the primitive drive leading to delinquency?
A person that is intelligent and charming but lacks remorse and shame is called a ___?
The contention that crime rate trends and cycles are related to nature of everyday patterns of social interactions that characterizes society in which they occur is call___?
Routine activities theory
A doctrine that holds that the useful is the good and that the aim of social or political action should be the greatest good for the greatest number is called___?
What term did Durkheim use to describe normalness which resulted from societys failure to provide adequate regulation of its member?
Shaw and McKay viewed delinquency as resulting from a breakdown in social control among___?
family and neighborhood
Cultural deviance theories view delinquency and crime as an expression of ___ to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the larger society.
What types of behavior did Miller say individuals engage in when searching for excitement?
alcohol and gambling
What stage of adaptation did Merton refer to when individuals rejected both goals of the culture & the institutional means of attaining them?
What term did Albert K. Cohen use to describe lower-class youths that were unable to attain middle-class goals?
Social structure theories contend a youth may become delinquent because he or she__?
lives in disorganized community
A weakness of social structure theory is that many youths in the same cultural setting ___?
do not become delinquent
The relatively stable formal and informal agreement that characterizes society including its economic arrangements, social institutions and its values and norms is called___?
____ proposes that delinquency results from the frustration individuals feel when they are unable to achieve the goals they desire.
What is the premise of Sutherlands theory of differential association?
people learn crime from others
Critics of differential association theory charge that it tends to ignore__?
why one may not succumb to delinquent definitions
What does drift theory emphasize far greater than differential association theory?
Drift theory examines the process in which juveniles release themselves from__?
the moral binds of the law
In Neutralization theory the statement "They had it coming to them" is best related to ___?
denial of the victim
According to containment theory what would most delinquent youths have?
weak external and internal controls
What does containment theory suggest is a precondition of law-abiding behavior?
Gottfredson and Hirishi suggested in a General theory of Crime that delinquency results from ___?
lack of self-control
Another name for social control theory is___?
What did Reckless contend that persons use to insulate themselves from deviant behaviors?
strong inner and outer containments
What is the basic theoretical premise of labeling theory?
society creates deviants
Triplett and Jarjoura referred to reactions by official agents of the justice system to illegal behaviors as___?
Which if the following theoretical propositions uses reciprocal role taking as part of its theoretical construction?
What did Quinney argue is a social control instrument of the state to serve the ___?
What variable did Marx suggest was the cause of crime?
Marxists contend that extreme poverty and economic disenfranchisement caused by a capitalist system causes _____crime?
What did Regoli and Hewitt suggest causes delinquency?
A perspective that delinquency or crime arises because individuals are members of a subculture that has conduct norms that are in conflict with the wider society is called ___?
culture conflict theory
The _____ assumes society creates deviance by negatively labeling those who are apprehended as different from other and any subsequent interactions are influenced by the meaning and perceptions derived form the label?
What type of theorists views laws as tools created by the powerful for their own benefit?
Meda-Chesney-Lind claims that the study of delinquency is___?
What did Lombroso suggest about female offenders?
they are more primitive and lower on the evolutionary scale
What did Cowie's study suggest leads female into sexual promiscuity?
Which theory concludes when daughters are freed froom patriarchal family relations, become more frequently delinquent?
Konopa's study of delinquent females linked____with a deep sense of loneliness and low self-esteem.
a poor home life
Social control theory contends that females are less delinquent then males due to___.
greater social bonds
Which theory sees cost of crime as low and the benefits as high?
rational choice, deterrence, routine activities theories
Studies in gender relations & delinquency suggest that younger females recieve discriminatory treatment because society's disapproval of ____?
According to Bartollas, what may have helped reduce discriminatory treatment of female offenders?
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
The social learning process which persons are taught behaviors appropriate only for their sex is called ___?
Juvenile court has jurisdiction in cases of
delinquency, dependency, neglect
group whose members share one or more characteristics
Define Index offenses
the most serious type of offense reported to FBI
Define Free will
the ability to make rational choices on actions and select one over other
Social Interactionist theory consist ___?
3 types- labeling, symbolic interactionist, conflict
Name the 7 types of Feminist theories
Define Liberal feminism
calls for equal opportunity & freedom of choice
Define Phenomenological feminisim
examines if adolescenct females recieve benefits of chivalry treatments
Define Socialist feminism
views both class & gender relations as equal in society
Define Marxist feminism
males dominated all so class & gender inequalities
Define Radical feminism
views masculine power & privilege as root cause to all social inequality
Define Third-Wave feminism
seeks ways men & women work together to eliminate racism, sexism & class privilege
Define Postmodern feminism
question if knowledge is knowable & reject idea that theres definition of justice to all people all the time