During the first of Freud's psycho-sexual stages of development, the child derives satisfaction from stimulation of which body part?
Which term would Freud use when referring to the interdependence between mother and child? .
conducted ingenious research which demonstrated that infant monkeys become attached to a terrycloth- covered "mother" and would cling to it rather than a wire mother that provided them with food
Paul gains comfort through eating and drinking. She also cries to gain attention from her parents or to express discomfort. Freud would say that Paul is in which stage of development?
What is the crisis of Erikson's first stage of psycho-social development?
Trust vs Mistrust.
Dan depends on his mother for everything he needs. When he cries, she responds with food or a clean diaper or a cuddle. Erikson would say that Dan's mother is helping him resolve the conflict known as t.
Trust vs Mistrus
In the Harlow monkey studies, with which "mother" did the infant monkeys spend the most time?
The mother covered in soft terrycloth.
What suggests that humans need and seek to form relationships early in life as a matter of genetics?
According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, what will a child have developed by age 5 years?
A clear internal model of the mother, a self model, and a model of relationships.
is most associated with the view that infants are biologically predisposed to form emotional bonds with caregivers and that the characteristics of those bonds shape later social and personality development.
Attachment theory or John Bowlby
According to your text, explain about adopted children.
Even though adoptive parents give a child a good home with a lot of love, if the child was abused or neglected in the past, it could effect them for years to come.
12. Bob cries and his mother responds immediately. When he coos at his mother, she smiles and cuddles him. Developmentalists would say that this is an example .
The emotional tie to a parent experienced by an infant from which the child derives security.
Do 6 months old children respond differently to their mother and father?
Yes, they show signs of positive emotional states with the mom and show short intense bursts of exciting interactions with the fathers.
When a child is in phase 2 of Bowlby's attachment sequence, which behaviors would they most likely exhibit?
They become less responsive to unfamiliar people and only direct signals to people who they spend a lot of time with.
Tim is two months old. He smiles and coos at almost everyone he meets. Bowlby would say that Tim is in which phase of attachment?
Phase 1: Nonfocused orienting and signaling.
Park is nine months old. Lately when his mother tries to leave him in the church nursery, he cries and clings to his mother. His seems especially anxious if there is a new worker in the nursery. Considering his age, Park is probably experiencing
Phase 3: secure base behavior.
Which term applied to an infant's cry and protest at being left with someone other than their primary caregivers?
Some infants between 6 and 16 months experience a fear of people they do not know. List terms that best identifies this fearful phase that seems to disappear as quickly as it came.
Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety.
Rose, age 11 months, went to the circus with her mother. When a clown came bouncing up to Rose's stroller, Rose was anxious and looked at her mother. When Rose's mother began to laugh at the clown, Rose joined in the laughter. Rose's behavior is called .
Give an example of social referencing.
The baby sees a stranger and looks at the mother to see how to react. If the mother looks frightened, the baby will be frightened.
Describe children who readily separate from their caregivers and seem to enjoy exploring their surroundings.
A child shows no interest in contact with her mother following a separation. This child does not specifically resist the mothers' efforts, but she will not seek much contact. She shows no preference for her mother over a stranger. Describe this child.
Describe the insecure/ambivalent category of attachment.
Child show little exploration and is wary of strangers. Greatly upset when separated from mother, but not reassured by mother's return or her efforts at comforting. Child both seeks and avoids contact at different times, May show anger toward mother at reunion, and rests both comfort from and contact with strangers
What is the term associated with expressions of discomfort, such as crying, when removed from an attachment figure?
When Mason cries, his mother responds by picking him up. When he coos, his mother talks to him. She smiles when he smiles. These are examples of
Lily's mother is extremely busy with her job, which she does at home. Some days Lily's mom is responsive and attentive, other days she is so overwhelmed by work that she is emotionally unavailable. Which attachment styles is Lily likely to develop?
According to your textbook, list a predictor of attachment quality.
If a mother is chronically and severely depressed, what you likely see in her child?
According to your textbook, what is likely to have an adverse effect on a child's social and psychological wellness?
Mental health of the parent.
Does attachment affect the person at adulthood?
Yes, they affect a person's relationships in adult life.
Which country has the greatest percentage of securely attached children? .
What did researchers find in cross-cultural studies of attachment?
There is some kind of secure attachment in every culture, but it is more common in some than others.
What is unique about the Efe culture in regard to child rearing?
The child is raised and cared for by the community.
The emotional and behavioral predispositions present at birth are thought to be the foundation of personality. These predispositions are collectively referred to as
George is 11 months old. He smiles a lot, is generally cheerful and shows little anxiety around strangers. Which type of temperament does George have?
Your neighbor Grace told you that her two children were obviously very different and it was noticeable right from birth. According to Sarah, her son was fussy and rarely slept through the night, while her daughter was calm and adapted very easily to any situation. Grace is describing which aspect of her children's differing personalities?
Which term is used to describe the temperament of children who are less regular with their body functions and slower to develop stable eating and sleeping patterns?
Definition of temperament.
Inborn predispositions such as activity level that form the foundations of personality
What is described in terms of activity level, distractibility, and persistence?
What is one of the dimensions proposed by researchers who study temperament? List all.
Activity level, Approach/positive emotionality/sociability, inhibition and anziety, negative emotionality/irritablilty/anger/emotionality, and efforful control/task persistence
Approach/positive emotionality is one aspect of which perspective of temperament?
Trait perspective. Tempermant is a function of how much or how little of various characteristics she possesses.
According to trait theory, what is the opposite of approach/positive emotionality (or sociability)?
Inhibition and anxiety
According to the trait perspective of temperament, what refers to an infant's relative tendency to move often and vigorously or remain passive?
Is there long-term stability of temperament?
Yes, temperament stays relatively constant into adulthood.
Which two neurotransmitters regulate the brain's response to new information and unusual situations?
Dopamine and serotonin
What is associated with shyness?
The more controlling parents were during play sessions when a child is young is directly associated to how shy a child is.
is the process of selecting experiences based on
Research correlates neurological differences with differences in temperament. What is a basic argument against the conclusions drawn from this data?
They argue that there is no way to know if these are causes or effects because behavior shapes the brain.
Summarize the findings of the research conducted by Hou, Chen, & Chen (2005) on parental influences of temperament?
The more controlling a parents is over a play session when a child is 4 directly correlates to how shy a child is when he Is 7.
What is another term for subjective self?
How does a child develop a subjective self?
He realizes that he can have an effect on things by interacting with objects.
From Research Report on page 144: What statements about gender and temperament is true?
Gender differences are due to inborn characteristics, gender expectation, and response patterns by parents
Mary and Dan are the parents of a well-behaved, predictable, and easy-going daughter. Their neighbors Bill and Sue have a daughter who they consider to be a tomboy because she likes to play ball and rough-and-tumble activities in the yard. This is an example of
gender difference stereotypes. **
What is another term for the objective self?
What best describes the toddler's understanding that he or she is defined by membership in various categories, such as gender or personality characteristics?
Objective (categorical) self.
Grasping the objective self requires
Sally is a toddler who participated in an experiment. Her mother placed a dot of rouge on her nose and sat her in front of a mirror to see if she would reach for the mirror or her own nose in order to touch the red spot. If Sally reaches for her own nose, she is demonstrating
At what age will a toddler show a sharp increase in self-awareness?
2 years old.
Research suggests that infants can identify changes in the emotions expressed in others' faces by what age?
When an infant demonstrates an understanding of the emotions of others and how those emotions affect behavior, and also understands his or her own emotions and their expression, they are demonstrating their
what age do self-conscious emotions typically arise?
2 and a half.
What is a self-conscious emotion?
Expression of embarrassment, pride, and shame.
Give an example of family day care, according to your text's definition.
Children are cared for by a relative in the child's home or in the reletives home.
Which of the following is a complicating factor in studying the effects of family day care?
Kids in family day care are often also in some kind of preschool or child care setting also.
What is probably to blame when explaining discrepancies in research findings related to day care and its influence on cognitive development?
Families who put their children into day cares are different in a lot of ways from parents who keep their kids at home
Which groups of children is most likely to experience some negative effects from non-familial day care?
White middle class kids.
All-in-all, what seems to be the most important factor in cognitive development in children?
A stimulating environment
Describe social development and day care .
Children who are put into day care are more likely to be insecurely attached.
70. According to your text, kindergartners who had spent as few as 10 hours per week in nonparental care showed more aggressive behavior than their peers.
71. What is the name of the stress hormone that has been linked to differences in behavior of children in day care versus children reared exclusively at home?
With regard to children's play areas, which characteristic of toys is more important than quantity?
What is the suggested group size for infants in day care?
For children younger than 2, the teacher/child ration should be no higher than
Tina is a caregiver in a local day care. Parents often describe her as involved, positive, and responsive to the children. Tina would be defined as what type of caregiver?