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Campbell Biology

anatomy is

study of the biological form of organism

Phsyiology is

biological functions an organism performs

Form and function are correlated at all levels or organization how?

-size and shape affects environment, interaction
-body plans have evolved
-physical laws constrain body plans
-increase in size causes proportionately large skeleton for support

Organisms exchange with enviornment

-multicellular organisms need nutrition, oxygen, excrete waste
-organisms have various systems where purposes are separated
-inside and outside surface conduct exchange
-every single cell has fluid cwhich facilitates movement of material in and out of cell

Rate of exchange is proportionate to

a cell's surface area

Rate of exchange material is proportionate to

volume of cell

What is intersitital fluid

Facilitates movement of material in and out of cells

Claude Bernanrd coined

-homeostasis
-body tries to keep things within a normal range NOT SET POINT

Cells are organized into

cells -> tissues -> organs ->organ system (work together to do a job)

Animal tissues types (4)

1) epithelial
2) connective
3) muscle
4) nerve

Two major ways of coordination by body

1) signal hormone - slow but long lastic
2) signalling neurons - quick
both help to coordinate function in body

Nerve cells

can connect to other cells
-neurostransmitters are molecles that release into cell receptors on surface

What is feedback control?

-way animals manage internal environment viea regulation or conforming to external environment
for example, thermoregulation. Either 1) animal changes internal control to moderate temperature or 2) allow the internal change to temp due to the external change

What happens if you go out of normal range?

above or below normal range, and you can die

Negative feedback

Your body will create products to stop something or prevent something from happening. sweating to prevent overheating.

positive feedback

feedback strengthens until something stops

Animal form and function are related at all levels of organization. How?

-interacting with environment - size and shape, parts of form, affect the way animals interact
-Genome determines many different body plans and how they evolve
-Physical laws constraint - constrain stength, diffusion, movement, head exchange
-as animals increase in size, their skeletons must be proportionately larger to support their mass
-evolutionary convergence - reflects different species adaptations to similar environmental challenges

what needs to be exchanged across membranes of animal cells

nutrients, waste products, gases

what is the rate exchange proportional to?

cell's surface area

what is amount of exchange material proportional to?

volume

How do small, simple organisms exchange material with their enviornment?

-small animals have enough surface area of plasma membrane to service entire cytoplasm
-ameobas have body plans that enable direct exchange b/w all of their cells and the enfironment

How do multicellular organisms with a saclike body plan exchange with their environment?

Sac like body plan have cell walls that are only two cells thick. It helps with the exchange of material between water and cells

an increase in the number of cells in multicellular orgnaisms

-decreases ratio of outer surface area:volume
-so animals have specialized sufaces that are extended, branced or folded
-all cells re surrounded by intersititial fluid for exchange

What is the space between cells called?

Intersititial fluid, also called ECM
-allows for moevement of material into and out of cells
-also complex animals have circulatory fluid, which is like blood - a way to exchange nutrients and dumb waste

Complex body plans help

animals living in environments that are variable but they want to maintain a relatively stable intenral environment (i.e. land animals)

How are body plans organized?

-specialized cells are grouped into tissues
-tissues have different functions, and congregated together they make up organs
-organs make organ systems, some organs are part of more than one system

Digestive system

Main components: moth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus

Function: food processing

Circulatory system

components: blood, heart, blood vessels

function - internal distribution of materials

Respiratory

components - lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes

gas exchange

immune and lymphatic

bone marrow, lumph nodes, spleen, white blood cells

body defense

Excretory

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

disposal of metabolic wastes, regulation of osmotic balance of blood

Endocrine

pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, other hormone secreting glands

coordination of body activities

Reproductive

ovariers, testes, associated organs

reproduction

Nervous

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs

boordination of body activities, detection of stimuli and formulation of responses

Integumentary

skin and its derivatives
protection against mechanical injury, infection, dehydration; thermoregulation

skeletal

skeleton

body support, preotection of internal organs, movement

Muscular

skeletal muscles

locomotion and other movement

what are four different tissue types?

1) epithelial - lining
2) connective
3) Muscle
4) nerve

Epithelial tissues

cover outside of body and line organ body cavities within body

Kidneys and many glands often have which type of epithelial tissue?

simple cuboidal

When secretion or active absoprtion is important, like intestines, secreting digestive juices, what type of cells are used?

simple columnar epithelium

what generally lines blood vessels, air sacs of lungs, and other places when maximum nutrient and gas diffusion is critical?

simple squamous epithelium

What generally is needed when multilayered cells need to generate rapidly? This cell is common on surfaces subject to abrasian like outser skin and linings to mouth, anus, and vagina

stratified squamous epithelium

What lines ciliated cells that form mucous membranes

Pseudostratified columnar

What type of tissue holds organs and other tissues in place? It is mostly sparse number of cells which secrete lots of ECM

connective tissue

What are some things that you will see in connective tissue?

web of fibers
-fibrobrasts - secrete fiber proteins
-macrophages - engulf foreign particles

What are the five types of connective tissue?

1) loose - widespread, binds epithelia to underlying tissues, holds organs in place
2) fibrous - dense with collagen, found in tendons and ligaments
3) bone - calcified connective tissue
4) adipose - fat, pads and insulate
5) cartilege - collagenous fibers

What are the three types of muscle tissues?

1) skeletal - striated bundles of long muscle tissue, controlled by nerve cells, attached to bones and tendons. have many nuclei, and controls VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT
2) smooth - lacks striations, in walls of tracts, spindle shaped, involuntary movement
3) cardiac - branches, has striations, found in heart only

How does the body coordinate and control?

1) signal by hormones
2) signal by neurons

Signalling by hormones

the stimulus is felt by the endocrine cell
cell secretes hormone
hormone travels everhwhere, then finds its way to blood vessel
which travels to certain cells that have the receptor and they do wht the hormones says
SLOW ACTING, LONG LASTING

signalling by neurons

stimulas goes into cell body of neurons, travels down axon to a specific location
-information conveyed depends on a signal's pathway
-is very fast, can be received by neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells, exocrine cells
-often the signal reaches its target by the release of neutransmitters into the small space between the nerve cell and its target
-target has receptors for neurtransmitters

Neurons are

basic units of nervous system, has dendrites, cell body, axon

Glia

help nourish, insulate, replenish and sometimes regulate neurons

How do animals manage their internal environment?

-by regulating
-by conforming to the external environment
-animals may regulate some environmental variables while conforming to others

What is a regulator

A regulator uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctiation

What is a conformer

allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes

What is homeostasis

-internal balance regardless of external environment
-this is a normal range
-in humans, body, pH, glucose concentration are each maintained within a normal range

What are some mechanisms of homeostasis

-stimulus - fluctuations above and beyond a certain range
-sensor - detects stimulus, triggers response
-response returns the variable to within acceptable range

What is acclimatization

Adjustment to changes in external environment

What is negative feedback?

-buildup of end product shuts the system off
-helps return a variable to a normal range

What is positive feeback?

-amplifies a stimulus and does NOT usually contribute to homeostasis in animals

What is the circadian rhythm?

-governs physiological changes that occur roughly every 24 hours

What ir thermoregulation?

process by which animals keep internal temperature within a tolerable range
-biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive to body temperature

What are endotherms?

-Animals that generate heat by metabolism (birds and mammals)
-more energetically expensive
-active at a greater range of external temperatures

What are ectotherms?

Animals gain heat from external sources, like the sun (reptiles, fishes, etc).
-can tolerate greater variation in internal temperature
-eat less than ectoterms and can tolerature large internal variations in temp

Which type of thermoregulator can tolerate large internal temperature variations?

Ectotherms

Which type of thermoregulator can tolerate a larger range of external temperatures?

endotherms

What is a poikilotherm?

-body temp varies with its environment
-not all poikilotherms (temp varies with environment) are ectoterms (get heat source from outside)

What is a homeotherm>?

body temperature is relatively constant
-not all homeotherms are endotherms. some are ectothermic but live in one type of environment

What are the four ways an organism exchanges heat with its surroundings?

1) radiation - emits EM waves
2) evaporation - removal of heat from surface by evaporating liquid
3) convection - wind blowing or water flowing through, removes hot on surface
4) conduction - direct transfer of heat between two organisms

Mammals often use what system for thermoregulation?

-integumentary system: skin, hair, nails

What are five adaptations that help animals thermoregulate?

1) insulation - skin, feathers, fur and blubber reduce heat flow between animal and environment
2) circulatory adaptations - regulation of blood near body surface, entrapment of heat in body core
3) cooling by evaporative heat loss
4) behavioral responses - such as bathing, burrowing, hiding in the shade
5) adjusting metabolic heat production - shiver to increase heat (thermogenesis)

Insulation

-major thermoregulatory adaptation in mamals and birds
-espeecially important in marine mammals such as whales and walruses because water is colder than body core near freezing polar seas

Circulatory adaptations

-regulation of blood flor near the surface of the body or traping heat within body core
-many endotherms can alter amount of blood fow between the body core and skin
-vasolidation - blood flow to skin increases, loses heat
-vasoconstriction - blood flow to skin decreases, lowering heat loss
-countercurrent exchange -transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions to allow cooling of organs

What is vasolidation?

blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss

What is vasoconstriction

blood flow to the skin decreases, lowing heat loss

What is countercurrent exchange

-arrangement of blood vessels in may marine mammals and birds allow countercurent exchange
-it is transfering heat between fluids going in opposite directions to cool an organ (like tetis)
-many endothermic insects have countercurrent heat exchangers near thorax to keep high temps - flight muscles warm!

Evaporative Heat Loss

-lose heat through evaporationof water from their skin (sweating)
-panting increases the cooling effect in birds and many mammals
-bathing!

What are some behavioral responses as adaptations for thermoregulation?

-postures that minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat
-hiding during the day, staying in a/c

What are some adjustments to metabolic heat production?

-endotherms counteract heat loss by varying heat production
-this is called thermogenesis
-shivering increases heat
-some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temp

What do mammals use for thermogenesis?

brown fat, specialized for rapid heat production

What is nonshivering thermogenesis?

take places when hormones cause mitchondia to increase metabolic activity

How do animals acclimate?

-birds and mammals can very their insulation to seasonal temp changes
-antifreeze is produced to prevent ice formation in cells
-hypothalamus in birds and mammals triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms (fever, shivering)
-fever is the results of a change to the set poit for a biological thermostat - this is mostly done by the hypothalamus

Bioenergetics

overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal
-determiens how much food an animal needs, and it relates to an animals size, activity and environment

What are energy requirements related to?

-animals size
-animal's activity
-environment

Energy allocation and use

-animals harvest chemical energy from food
-molecules are used to make ATP
-ATP powers cellular work
-remaining food can be used in biosynthesis

What is biosynthesis

-body growth and repeait
-synthesis of storage material such as fat
-production of gametes

What is metabolic rate?

-amount of energy and animal uses in a unit of time
-is determine by animal's heat loss
-animals amount of oxygen consumed
-carbon dioxide produced

What is the basal metabolic rate

-rate of an endotherm at rest in a comfortable temperature

What is standard metabolic rate?

-metabolic rate of an ECTOTHERM at rest at a specific temperature

What do both basal and standard metabolic rates assume?

-nongrowing, fasting and non stressed animal

Which type of thermoregulator has lower metabolic rates when both organisms have comparable size?

-ectotherms

What are some influences on metabolic rate?

-size and activity

How does size affect metabolic rate?

-metabolic rate is porportional to body mass to the power of 3/4 (rate =m^(3/4))
-Smaller animals have higher metabolic rates per gram than larger animals!!!

What do the higher rate of smaller animals leads to

-higher oxygen delivery rate
-higher breathing rate
-higher heart rate
-greate blood volume

How does activity affect metabolic rate?

-max rate an animal can sustain is inversely related to the durating of the activity

What is torpor

physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases
-enables animals to save enrgy while avoiding difficulat and dnagerous conditions

What is hibernation?

long term winter torpor
-adaptation to winter and cold and food scarcity

What is summer torpor?

-estivation
-enables animals to survive long periods of high temepratures and scarce water

what is daily torpor?

-small mammals and birds have low activity and low metabolism in tune with their feeding patterns

Which of the following would increase the rate of heat exchange between an animal and its environment?
-feathers or fur
-vasoconstriction
-wind blowing across the body surface
-countercurrent heat exchanger
-blubber or fat layer

wind blowing across the body surface

Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has

less surface area per unit of volume.

An animal's inputs of energy and materials would exceed its outputs
-f it is growing and increasing its mass.
-ever; homeostasis makes these energy and material budgets always balance.
-f the animal is an endotherm, which must always take in more energy because of its high metabolic rate.
-f it is actively foraging for food.
-f it is hibernating.

if it is growing and increasing its mass.

Which of the following animals uses the largest percentage of its energy budget for homeostatic regulation?
- desert insect
- hydra
- snake in a temperate forest
- marine jelly (an invertebrate)
- desert bird

desert bird

Which of the following systems is correctly paired with one of its parts?

endocrine system ... thyroid gland

Which of the following are types of cells found in epithelial tissues?
-erythrocytes and platelets
-neurons
-chondrocytes and osteocytes
-fibroblasts and osteoblasts
-squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells

squamous, cuboidal, and columnar cells

Where in the body would you be most likely to find secretory cells shaped like dice?

thyroid and salivary glands

Microscopic analysis of an unknown tissue sample reveals the presence of chondrocytes, indicating that the sample was probably taken from _____ tissue.

cartilage

Osteocytes are

bone tissues

Cells that secrete the proteins that make cartilage strong yet flexible are called _____.

chondrocytes

Ligaments connect _____ to _____.

bone to bone

Tendons connect __ to ____

bone to muscle

When we talk of feedback systems, the word "stimulus" means _____.

a deviation off the accepted range

The role of an effector in a feedback loop is to _____.

to influence the stimulus

Which statement is true regarding thermoregulation?
-Endotherms must always maintain a fairly constant body temperature to survive.
-An ectotherm such as a lizard does not maintain a fairly constant body temperature.
-Ectotherms generally do not conserve body heat as effectively as do polar bears.
-In furry animals, raised hairs keep the animal cooler than lowered hairs.
-A dilated blood vessel conserves more heat than a constricted one.

Ectotherms generally do not conserve body heat as effectively as do polar bears.

On a cold day, blood vessels in the skin _____.

constrict, reducing heat loss from blood at the surface

Dilation of blood vessels on the skin cause

diameter of blood vessels to increase, in this case increasing blood flow to the skin and heat loss at the same time.

When your body temperature is too _____, _____ helps to correct the situation because it _____.

high ... peripheral vasodilation ... redirects heat from the body core to the outside

Which description is a behavior that helps warm the body?
-Sweat oozes from the hide of a thirsty antelope in the drought-stricken Serengeti plains.
-A man gets "goosebumps" after walking outside in the winter without a jacket.
-An elephant rolls in the mud and sprays water over its back.
-A woman puts on a wide-brimmed hat while laboring in the sunshine.
-A falcon migrates from San Francisco to Brazil for the winter.

A falcon migrates from San Francisco to Brazil for the winter.

In the late fall, bats hibernate in clusters with many bats pressed together and holding on to one another. Which of the following supposed advantages of huddling behavior is, in reality, not true?
-Any heat generated by any bat is shared by other bats.
-Less surface area is exposed to the environment.
-In this configuration, less heat is needed for each bat and, therefore, each bat requires less food.
-Huddling behavior helps bats stay warm while they feed.
-Huddling behavior decreases the amount of food needed for bats to stay warm.

Huddling behavior helps bats stay warm while they feed.

The amount of energy expended while an endothermic organism is resting, unstressed, and not actively digesting or growing is called its _____.

basal metabolic rate

homeostatic control

-sensors - detects change that is higher or lower than range, sends information to integrator
-integrator - compares this to accepted range, and then sends instructions to effector
-effector then does the action
this is circular

Which of the following actions is not a function of the epithelium?
-Regulates the excretion of waste.
-Controls the exchange of nutrients between the internal and external environments.
-Allows the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment.
-Creates an internal environment that is different from the external environment.

-Allows the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment.
-this is not true because The epithelium allows the internal environment to remain constant even if the external environment changes.

A countercurrent heat exchanger enables an animal to _____.
-absorb heat from the environment
-reduce the loss of body heat to the environment
-increase heat loss by evaporation
-slow metabolism when food is not available
-produce more heat when needed

-reduce the loss of body heat to the environment

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