intro to sociology test 2

47 terms by monifa_yearby

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1. Which of the following is an example of a society?
A. an Amish community in Pennsylvania
B. the state of Alaska
C. a British rugby team
D. a small tribe on a remote South Pacific island

a small tribe on a remote island

Which of the following is considered a cultural universal?
A. athletic sports
B. war
C. money restrictions
D. none of these

athletic sports

An American traveling abroad observes locals eating chocolate covered crickets. While she does not partake herself, she does not judge the practice. She is exhibiting:

culturally relativism

Communism, the Episcopalian religion, and the microwave oven are examples of

innovation

English-speaking people in the U.S. commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of

cultural diffusion

. The belief in a higher power would be considered:

non material cultural

Armed militia groups, such as the one that was involved in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, are an example of a

sub cultural and countercultural

. Beth travels to Africa and is introduced to living in a dirt-floored hut while she works digging canals for a serive trip. It is safe to say she would be experiencing:

culture shock

. A law is

governmental social control

. A Girl Scout works hard on a difficult project, and when she has completed her work, she is given a badge that she can wear on her uniform. This is an example of

a sanction

Given that cultural diffusion could upset the stability of a society, which perspective is most likely to argue that most cultures resist new cultural components that do not fit comfortably into their social system?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. feminist perspective

functionalist persperctive

. A hypothesis concerning the role of languages in shaping cultures was created by linguist(s)
A. William F. Ogburn.
B. Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf.
C. W.I. Thomas.
D. George Murdock.

Edward sapir and Benjamin whorf

. Which sociological perspective would maintain that the laws of a society are created by the groups in power and help those groups maintain their superior status?
A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. global perspective

conflict perspective

A teacher plans a trip to the theater for a junior high school class. As part of the preparation, the teacher tells students how they should dress and how they will be expected to act inside the theater. This is an example of
A. the dramaturgical approach.
B. social promotion.
C. socialization.
D. role taking.

the dramaturgical

. Becky has a toy vacuum. She often pushes it around the living room. Becky would be considered to be:

the the preparatory stage

Which of the following is the best example of a significant other?
A. a casual acquaintance
B. a clerk in a department store
C. a parent
D. someone you met at a party last night

a parent

Which of the following would be an example of a significant other?
A. a high school coach
B. a clerk in a fast-food restaurant
C. a bus driver
D. a casual acquaintance at school

a high school coach

. Bob is on his first date with Mary, whom he really likes. He tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too, and to want to go out with him again. This is an example of

impression management

A child spends a lot of time putting objects into his mouth and touching everything in sight. This child is probably in which stage of development, according to Jean Piaget?

sensorimotor

. A child grows up in a dysfunctional family, where he observes abuse, constant fighting, character assassination, and humiliation. This represents an informal process of

reverse socialization

. An individual participates in personal therapy sessions for one year, and there are dramatic changes in the individual's personality during that period of time. This individual has undergone
A. socialization.
B. anticipatory socialization.
C. resocialization.
D. positive socialization.

resocialization

. Which of the following is considered a total institution?
A. a high school
B. a mental hospital
C. a Girl Scout troop
D. the New York Mets

a mental hospital

In total institutions, people are subjected to humiliating rituals known as

degradation ceremonies

In forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to others and how others perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions. This sociological approach to the development of a self represents the views of which sociological perspective?

interactionist perspective

Socialization concerning not only masculinity and femininity but also marriage and parenthood begins in childhood as a part of family life. Children observe their parents as they express affection, deal with finances, quarrel, complain about in-laws, and so forth. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in studying this?

interactionist

Which sociological perspective emphasizes schools in the U.S. foster competition through built-in systems of rewards and punishments?

conflict

As primary agents of childhood socialization, schools play a critical role in teaching children the values and customs of the larger society. This view of the socialization process is most likely of particular interest to which sociological perspective?

functionalist

Which of the following statements reflects a functionalist view of education as a socializing agent?
A. Schools can reinforce the divisive aspects of society, especially those of social class.
B. Schools are frequently used by those in power to maintain their power and to continue the subjugation of those with lower status.
C. Schools are responsible for teaching the values and norms of the larger society.
D. A teacher's style may often influence classroom interaction.

schools are responsible for teaching the values and norms of the larger society

A magazine would be considered:
A. transmitters
B. opinion leaders
C. mass media
D. narcotizers

mass media

George is the executive producer of a small recording company with an established label. He rejects a popular local band because it competes with a group already on their label. He functions as a

gatekeeper

Which of the following would be a common way for television to create stereotypes?
A. portraying women as sleek and thin
B. portraying young minority males as drug dealers and criminals
C. portraying members of the lower class as uneducated and lazy
D. all of these

all of these

Which sociological perspective(s) would be most likely to focus on gatekeeping as a process that reflects a desire to maximize profits by those with power and authority?

functionalist

. Which sociological perspective(s) would be most likely to support the idea that a dominant ideology is created through media images and is used to construct a reality based on protecting the interests of the powerful?

conflict

. Fans of the TV show Star Trek (known as Trekkies) meet in costume at a convention celebrating the anniversary of the show's conception. Which sociological perspective would be most likely to focus attention on this event?

interactionist

Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive for a saltshaker and hits the executive's arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a(an)

informal sanction

Clyde is imprisoned for "tagging," or "visual terrorism." The arrest is an example of a(an)

formal sanction

A college student interrupts the instructor during a seminar; the instructor responds with an angry glare. This is an example of

INFORMAL Social control

. A college student is caught cheating on an exam and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee's action is an example of

formal social control

. Which of the following would be an example of anomie?
A. A man loses his job, his fortune, and his family during the Great Depression of the 1930s.
B. An individual takes a shortcut to school and gets lost.
C. A woman wins a lottery and gives a considerable amount of her winnings to several charities that are important to her.
D. all of these

a man loses his job, his fortune, and his family during the great depression

An employee at a welfare office is so concerned with paperwork that he doesn't have time to administer to the needs of the poor, hungry, and homeless individuals who seek assistance. According to Merton's theory, this welfare worker would be a(an)

ritualist

According to Robert Merton, members of revolutionary political organizations such as the Irish Republican Army would typically be classified as

rebels

Bob works as a cashier in a supermarket. His boss instructs him to include the price of a new broom—which Bob's boss has deceptively placed near the register—on everyone's bill. Bob's boss also encourages him to change the dates on expired food items so the items can continue to be sold. Eventually, Bob begins to develop his own deceptive sales practices. This is an example of

differential association

. A corporate vice president is convicted of attempting to bribe a presidential aide. This type of crime is called

white collar crime

. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?

functionalist perspective

"Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior." This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?

inteactionist

. Which of the following is a criticism of social disorganization theory?
A. too much focus on larger forces
B. seems to "blame the victim"
C. critics feel there are no viable organizations
D. critics feel troubled areas are hopeless

critics feel troubled areas are hopeless

A bank president is found guilty of tax evasion. In addition to paying the government all the money he owes with substantial interest, he is sentenced to three years' probation and a $50,000 fine. At the same time, a female teller at the same bank is found guilty of stealing $500. The teller is sentenced to a prison term of no less than four years. This differential treatment would be of particular concern to sociologists using the

interactionist

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