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Mineral nutrients _____.

contribute little to a plant's overall mass

For an element to be considered a macronutrient _____.

it must be required in relatively large amounts

Which of the following soil minerals is most likely leached away during a hard rain?

NO-3

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil _____.

convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia

Why is nitrogen fixation an essential process?

Fixed nitrogen is often the limiting factor in plant growth.

A greenhouse experiment to test growth rates in tomato cultivars was conducted using sterile soil mix and watering with sterile solutions of water and fertilizer. Following germination, half of the plants in each group were transplanted into soil that was obtained from a nearby agricultural field (nonsterile), the other half into sterile soil. After several weeks the plants that were transplanted into nonsterile soil exhibited a much higher growth rate compared to the plants transplanted into sterile soil. The most likely explanation for this result is

the plants transplanted into the nonsterile soil were inoculated with mycorrhizae.

Mycorrhizae enhance plant nutrition mainly by

absorbing water and minerals through the fungal hyphae.

Which of the following is correctly matched with its tissue system?

cortex ... ground tissue system

Other than the transport of materials, what is another function that vascular tissue performs in a leaf?

The tissue functions as a skeleton that reinforces the shape of the leaf.

Root hairs are important to a plant because they _____.

increase the surface area for absorption

How do cells in a meristem differ from cells in other types of plant tissue?

They continue to divide.

The primary growth of a plant adds _____ and secondary growth adds _____.

height ... girth

The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is primarily

elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem.

The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root.

I. root cap
II. zone of elongation
III. zone of cell division
IV. zone of cell differentiation
V. apical meristem

I, V, III, II, IV

Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?

pericycle

Plants and animals respond differently to the environment. Which statement most accurately compares the responses of plants and animals to changes in their environment?

Animals tend to respond to changes in their environment by movement; plants tend to respond to changes in their environment by growth.

Select the best description of the significance of the meristems of plants.

Plant meristems are permanently embryonic regions within the plant body.

A vessel element would likely lose its protoplast in which section of a root?

zone of differentiation

Secondary growth NEVER occurs in _____.

leaves

_____ provides cells for secondary growth.

Vascular cambium

Vascular cambium forms wood toward the stem's _____ and secondary phloem toward the stem's _____.

center ... surface

What is the function of cork?

insulation and waterproofing

How is the supply of vascular cambium maintained?

by the division of its cells

Cell division in the vascular cambium adds to the girth of a tree by adding new _____ to the layer's interior and _____ to the layer's exterior.

xylem ... phloem

As the epidermis is pushed outward and sloughed off, it is replaced by tissues produced by the _____.

cork cambium

Which structure or compartment is not part of the plant's apoplast?

the lumen of a sieve tube

Active transport involves all of the following except

diffusion of solute through the lipid bilayer of a membrane.

The value for Ψ in root tissue was found to be -0.15 MPa. If you take the root tissue and place it in a 0.1 M solution of sucrose (Ψ = -0.23 MPa), the net water flow would

be from the tissue into the sucrose solution.

Some botanists argue that the entire plant should be considered as a single unit rather than a composite of many individual cells. Which of the following cellular structures best supports this view?

plasmodesmata

Which of these are symbiotic associations?

mycorrhizae

In roots the _____ forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of _____ cells before entering the _____.

Casparian strip ... endodermis ... xylem

_____ provide(s) the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.

Transpiration

_____ bonds are responsible for the cohesion of water molecules.

Hydrogen

_____ cells are the cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata, thus playing a role in regulating transpiration.

Guard

A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much _____.

sugar

What drives the flow of water through the xylem?

the evaporation of water from the leaves

What is the main force by which most of the water within xylem vessels moves toward the top of a tree?

evaporation of water through stoma

In which plant cell or tissue would the pressure component of water potential most often be negative?

stem xylem

Transpiration in plants requires all of the following except

active transport through xylem cells.

The opening of stomata is thought to involve

an increase in the solute concentration of the guard cells.

Which tissue acts as a filter on the water absorbed by root hairs?

Endodermis

True or false? Root pressure can move water a long distance up the xylem because of the higher water potential of the xylem in comparison to the water potential in the surrounding cells.

false

Which of the following statements about the distribution of sap throughout a plant is true?

The mechanism that explains the movement of sugars throughout a plant is called the pressure-flow hypothesis.

Which term describes an area where sugars are used or stored?

Sink

Which of the following statements about xylem transport is true?

Water and minerals move through the root cortex into the xylem and upward through the stem and into leaves.

What characterizes the rates of photosynthesis and transport in a plant on a dry cloudy day?

Both the photosynthesis and transpiration rates are low.

True or false? The rate of sugar transport in a plant depends on the rate of photosynthesis, the rate of transpiration, and the difference in turgor pressure between the source and the sink.

false

Which part of a plant attracts pollinators?

Petals

Which process involves the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma?

Pollination

True or false? The endosperm in a seed develops into the embryo.

false

Which term describes the male gametophytes of flowering plants?

Pollen grains

Which structure formed by the male gametophyte allows sperm to reach the ovary of a flowering plant?

Pollen tube

How is fertilization in flowering plants different from fertilization in other plant groups?

One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm.

Which of the following statements about seed formation in a flowering plant is true?

The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.

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