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Defend Earth from alien invaders
Cyclorrhapha (Hover flies)
mimics of bees/wasps; eat aphids; important pollenators
Dung flies (several families)
northern temperate dung
Horse flies, Robber flies, Soldier flies, Bee flies, Dance flies
large, biting flies, bite for food
huters of mid-flight insects; long legs for catching, strong proboscis; hairs to protect eyes
pollen/nectar feeders as adults; larva have CaCO₃ thickened skin
large flies with a thin proboscis; nectar feeders; 2 distinct larval stages; worm-like larvae crawl into burrow of solitary wasp, eats stored pollen, then becomes a maggot, eats wasp young, then metamorphoses, leaves
look and act like robber flies; differences: eyes bluge less, larvae are carniverous
mosquitoes; small, delicate flies; long legs, antennae, long, thin wings; many are ancient;
true flies; if wings present: only 1 pair + halteres;
___ --> hatches into grub --> ___ --> pupates --> ___
egg --> ___ --> grows, sheds skin ---> ___ --> adult fly
undergoing complete metamorphosis
larva with complete head and horizontally biting mandibles; pupa obtect, generally free, antennae of adults usually many segmented; pleural suture of mesothorax generally straight
larva with incomplete head and vertically biting mandibles; pupa obtect, generally free; antennae of adult generally three segmented; pleural suture of mesothorax twice bent
larva with vestigial head; pupa exarate, usually in a puparium; antennae of adult with three segments; pleural suture twice bent; head with frontal lunule and a ptilinum
Having the wings and appendages enclosed or covered by a secretion that forms a hard shell or horny case, as the pupae of most butterflies and moths.
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