Consumer buying behavior
_________ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.
A) individuals who acquire goods or services for personal consumption
B) households that purchase goods or services for personal consumption
The consumer market is made up of which of the following?
Economic, technological, and cultural forces are all ________ in the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.
Most large companies research ________ buying decisions to find out what they buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy.
The starting point of understanding a consumer's response to various marketing efforts is the ________ of a buyer's behavior.
Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps (Product, Price, Promotion, Place). Which is NOT one of these?
The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer's ________, which has two parts. First, the buyer's characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer's decision process itself affects the buyer's behavior.
In the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is NOT a major type of force or event in the buyer's environment?
________ is(are) the most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior.
Marketers are always trying to spot ________ in order to discover new products that might be wanted.
Each culture contains smaller ________, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
Which of the following is NOT considered an important American subculture by marketers?
________ are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
number of children in the family
What is one way that social class is NOT measured?
Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.
Which of the following statements is true regarding social class in the United States?
________ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a teenaged basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers.
________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others.
Opinion leaders are sometimes referred to as ________.
Many companies, such as JetBlue and Sony, enlist everyday consumers who are enthusiastic about their brands to become ________ , brand ambassadors who share their passion for a company's products with large circles of friends and acquaintances in return for insider knowledge and other rewards.
Companies who use brand ambassadors are participating in ________.
MySpace.com and YouTube are both examples of ________.
Consumers are more likely to view to peer-to-peer communication as credible
Which of the following best explains why a rush of marketers now participate in established online social networks?
The ________ is the most important consumer buying organization in society; the roles and influences of different members have been researched extensively.
A ________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.
A buyer's decisions are influenced by ________ such as the buyer's age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept.
age and life-cycle stage
People change the goods and services they buy over time because of the two changing factors of ________.
________ is a person's pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics, including his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
dissonance-reducing buying behavior
All of the following make up a person's lifestyle EXCEPT ________.
Activities, Interests, Opinions
A customer's lifestyle can be measured by using the AIO dimensions. What does AIO stand for?
________ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one's own environment. It is usually described in traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.
Researchers found that a number of well-known brands tended to be strongly associated with one particular trait, such as Jeep with "ruggedness." Which of the following terms would a marketer use to describe a specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand?
Brand personality is a mix of human traits attributed to a brand. Which of the following is NOT a brand personality trait as discussed in your text?
A person's buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors. Which is NOT one of these factors?
A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction.
buy products to support their self-images
Many marketers use the self-concept premise that people's possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; that is, "we are what we have." Under this premise, consumers ________.
According to Freud's theories, people are ________ many of the psychological forces shaping their behavior.
The term ________ refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers' hidden, subconscious motivations.
Maslow's theory is that ________ can be arranged in a hierarchy.
Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
What is the LEAST pressing in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
People cannot focus on all of the stimuli that surround them each day. A person's tendency to screen out most of the information to which he or she is exposed is called ________.
People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already believe. This is called ________.
People forget much that they learn. They tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. This is called ________.
consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. They are concerned about ________ advertising.
________ describes changes in an individual's behavior arising from experience.
Learning occurs through the interplay of all of the following EXCEPT ________.
________ are subtle stimuli that determine where, when, and how a person responds to an idea.
If a consumer's experience is rewarding, that consumer will probably use the product more and more. The consumer's response to the product will be ________.
Applying ________, marketers can affect demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.
A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.
A(n) ________ is a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
A person's attitudes fit into a pattern, and to change one attitude may require difficult adjustments in many others. Thus, a company should ________ try to fit its products into existing attitudes rather than attempt to change attitudes
complex buying behavior
When consumers are highly involved with the purchase of an expensive product and they perceive significant differences among brands, they most likely will undertake ________.
variety seeking buying behavior
When customers have a low involvement in a purchase but perceive significant brand differences, they will most likely engage in ________
variety seeking buying behavior
The buyer decision process consists of five stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages?
A) need recognition
B) information search
C) variety-seeking buying behavior
D) purchase decision
E) postpurchase behavior
The buying process starts with ________, in which the buyer recognizes a problem.
) If the consumer's drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake a(n) ________.
The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. Which of the following is NOT one of these types of sources?
The most effective sources from which consumers obtain information are ________ because they legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer.
Marketers describe the way the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices as ________.
attitude of others
Generally, the consumer's purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Which of the following is one of these factors?
A) postpurchase behavior
B) attitude of others
C) cognitive dissonance
D) alternative evaluation
E) new product adoption
post purchase behavior
After the purchase of a product, consumers will be either satisfied or dissatisfied and engage in ________.
The relationship between the consumer's expectations and the product's ________ determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase.
Almost all major purchases result in ________, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.
Consumers learn about new products for the first time and make the decision to buy them during the ________.
Which of the following is NOT one of the stages that customers go through in the process of learning about and making decisions about a new product or service?
product characteristics that influence rate of adoption
Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability are all examples of ________.
Generation Xers, who were born between 1965 and 1976, share the childhood experiences of higher parental divorce rates, recession, and corporate downsizing. They tend to care about the environment and value experience over acquisition. Generation Xers make up a ________.
A shoe company uses ads featuring the members of a country music band with the hope that the band's fans will see them wearing the company's shoes and want to wear the same shoes. The shoe company is hoping that fans of the band view the band as a ________.
Rashmi Singh always knows about the trendiest fashions. She actively shares her knowledge with a wide group of friends and colleagues about where to shop for cutting-edge fashion at great deals, and her advice is often followed. Rashmi is an example of a(n)________.
Shane Sudendorf is an active member of her sorority, two intramural teams, and a service organization at her college. She also actively participates on two online social networks, posting information about her day along with her thoughts on music, food, fashion, and culture. From this description, which of the following is the best way to describe Shane?
There is a trend in the United States toward rediscovering the flavor of regional cooking and the use of locally grown ingredients. People are choosing to spend hours in the kitchen using only the freshest ingredients to recreate local culinary traditions. This change in ________ is one of the reasons the number of farmers markets in the United States has increased by 70 percent in the last eight years.
The RBC Royal Bank has identified five life-stage segments. Members of which segment are most likely to be interested in debt-load management services?
According to one analyst, a Harley-Davidson motorcycle can make you feel like "the toughest, baddest guy on the block." Harley-Davidson promotes its motorcycles with images of independence, freedom, and power. Harley-Davidson has created a ________.
interpretive consumer research
A marketing research company asked members of a focus group to describe several motorcycle brands as animals. This is an example of ________.
Mark has long supported the actions and decisions of his city's mayor. However, many recent news stories have raised questions about the ethics of the mayor's programs and initiatives. Mark doubts that the mayor, in whom he has such faith, could behave unethically, and Mark tends to distrust the information in the media. Mark continues to support the mayor. Mark has engaged in ________.
Juana looked at her September issue of O magazine and did not see anything of interest. After her mother was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, she found the issue extremely interesting because it offered advice on how to help people who are suffering from this problem. The issue became quite interesting to Juana due to ________.
Bob's job description had been changed. The rationale for the changes made no sense to Bob when they were explained. Bob continued to perform most of his job duties as usual. He has engaged in ________.
Stephanie and Jamal attended a sales seminar. Both left the seminar with differing opinions about what was important to implement in their jobs. Both used the information in different ways, according to what each already believed was important. They have engaged in ________.
complex buying behavior
George is buying his first house. He has found two houses that he thinks he likes. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences between these two houses. George will likely undertake ________.
post purchase dissonance
Pat thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the purchase, Pat started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars available. Pat is experiencing ________.
dissonance reducing buying behavior
For the past 10 years Bill and Margaret Kennedy have saved money to go to the Super Bowl should their team, the Chicago Bears, ever win the NFC championship. This is the year, and several tour companies offer attractive, but very similar, packages to the game. They want to be certain to choose the best one. Bill and Margaret are most likely to exhibit ________.
variety seeking buying behavior
Carrie tends to purchase various brands of bath soap. She has never been loyal to a specific brand; instead, she does a lot of brand switching. Carrie exhibits ________.
stress several key points in ad copy
Which of the following would a marketer be LEAST likely to do to encourage habitual buying behavior?
post purchase behavior
Lexus works to keep customers happy after each sale, aiming to delight the customer in order to gain a customer for life. In this pursuit, Lexus is focused on which step of the buyer decision process?
Blake is in the process of buying a new car. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences among his three favorite models. Blake's next step is most likely to be ________.
Donna wants to buy a new coat. During the ________ stage of her purchase process she will ask her friends to recommend a store and/or a style of coat. She will search the newspaper for coat sales, and she will visit nearby stores to see what is available in her price range.
post purchase behavior
Leona purchased two bottles of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked her opinion of the wine, she said the burgundy wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the Chablis had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were made during the ________ stage of the purchase decision.
Cameron loves to know about and purchase the most up-to-date technological gadgets. Among his friends, he is almost always the first to own the newest electronic product. Often the products that Cameron buys become adopted by large groups of consumers, but occasionally Cameron will purchase a product that is adopted by only a small portion of the population. To which of the following adopter groups does Cameron belong?
Most of its business comes from commercial and industrial customers
In which of the following ways is GE like most other large companies?
business buyer behavior
As a purchasing agent, Benni Lopez buys goods and services for use in the production of products that are sold and supplied to others. Benni is involved in ________.
products purchased for personal consumption
Business buying behavior refers to the buying behavior of organizations that buy all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) products for use in production of other products
B) services for use in production of other services
C) products purchased to resell to others
D) products purchased to rent to others
E) products purchased for personal consumption
In one way or another, most large companies sell to ________.
When compared to consumer markets, business markets are ________.
satisfaction of needs through purchases
Which of the following is NOT a way that business and consumer markets differ?
A) market structure and demand
B) nature of the buying unit
C) satisfaction of needs through purchases
D) types of decisions
E) decision processes
There are many sets of ________ purchases made for each set of ________ purchases.
they deal with far fewer but far larger buyers
Which of the following is true about business marketers in comparison to consumer marketers?
Hewlett-Packard and Dell buy Intel microprocessor chips because consumers buy personal computers. This demonstrates an economic principle called ________.
) The Pure Drug Company produces insulin, a product with a very stable demand, even though the price has changed several times in the past two years. Insulin is a product with ________ demand.
The demand for many business goods and services tends to change more, and more quickly, than the demand for consumer goods and services does. This is referred to as ________ demand.
Large business purchasers usually call for detailed product specifications, written purchase orders, careful supplier searches, and formal approval. These are all examples of how the business buying decision process is more ________ than the consumer buying decision process is.
The owners of the company you work for have developed a core network of suppliers they are working closely with to ensure an appropriate and dependable supply of products. This is an example of ________ management
Although there are many differences between business buying behavior and consumer buying behavior, both respond to the same four stimuli: product, price, promotion, and ________.
center, decision process
In a typical organization, buying activity consists of two major parts: the buying ________ and the buying ________.
self concept factors
The buying center and the buying decision process are affected by all of the following factors EXCEPT ________.
A) internal organization factors
B) interpersonal factors
C) individual factors
D) external environmental factors
E) self-concept factors
Which business buying situation is the marketer's greatest opportunity and challenge?
In which type of buying situation would a supplier most likely focus on maintaining product and service quality?
You just lost a major account because a competitor provided the most complete system to meet the customer's needs and solve the customer's problems, and made the sale. In other words, the competition beat you with ________.
Another name for systems selling is ________ selling.
The decision-making unit of a buying organization is called the ________.
A ________ consists of the actual users of products, those who control buying information, those who influence the decisions, those who do the actual buying, and those who make the buying decisions.
In routine buying situations, which members of the buying center have formal or informal power to select or approve the final suppliers?
A(n) ________ controls the flow of information to others in the buying center
Don Amspacher, in his role on the buying committee, provides information for evaluating the alternative purchase decisions and helps define and set specifications for evaluating alternatives for purchasing. Don is a(n) ________.
Gretchen Kabor has formal authority to select the suppliers and arrange terms of purchase for many of the items her firm uses. Her role in the buying center is that of ________.
A buying center is not a fixed, formally identified, unit within an organization, but rather a set of ________ assumed by different people for different purchases.
individuals who supply the product
Which of the following is NOT included in the decision-making unit of a buying organization?
A) individuals who use the product or service
B) individuals who influence the buying decision
C) individuals who make the buying decision
D) individuals who supply the product
E) individuals who control buying information
The buying center may involve informal participants who are not obvious to sellers
Which of the following statements about buying centers is true?
A) The buying center is like a standing committee.
B) The buying center roles are specified on the organizational chart.
C) The typical buying center has five employees, one to assume each of the buying center's roles.
D) An individual's role in the buying center does not change.
E) The buying center may involve informal participants who are not obvious to sellers
When suppliers' offers are very similar, business buyers have little basis for strictly ________.
When competing products differ greatly, business buyers are more accountable for their purchase choices and tend to pay more attention to ________.
all of the above
Buyers are heavily influenced by the current and expected economic environment. That includes which of the following buyer influences?
A) level of primary demand
B) economic outlook
C) the cost of money
D) A and B only
E) all of the above
buy and hold large inventories of the materials
To ensure an adequate and available supply of key scarce materials, many companies are now willing to ________.
The major influences on the buying process at General Aeronautics include company policies and systems, technological change, and economic developments. The types of influences on the buying process in this scenario are most accurately categorized as ________ and ________.
Which of the following types of factors influencing members of a buying center are typically the most difficult for marketers to assess?
Policies, procedures, and systems are all examples of ________ influences on business buyer behavior.
Status, empathy, and persuasiveness are all examples of ________ influences on business buyer behavior.
new task buying
Charlie Van Dusen, executive vice president of National Central Bank, is going through all of the stages of the buying process to purchase a computer system for the bank. Charlie is facing a(n) ________ situation
A buyer is unhappy with a current supplier's price
Which of the following is an example of an internal stimulus that might lead to the business buying process stage of problem recognition?
The first step of the business buying process is ________.
Business marketers often alert customers to potential problems and then show how their products provide solutions. These marketers are hoping to influence which stage of the business buying process?
general need description
The purchasing agent at your company is working with engineers and users to define the items to purchase by describing general characteristics and quantities needed. He is also ranking the importance of reliability, durability, and price. The buyer is preparing a(n) ________.
general need description
In which stage of the business buying process is a supplier most likely to provide a buyer with information about the values of different product characteristics
Which of the following is the process of the buying center deciding on the best product characteristics?
During which stage of the business buying process is a buyer most likely to conduct a value analysis, carefully studying components to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made less expensively?
Empire Products has begun a process to find the best suppliers. Empire Products is actively engaged in ________.
A buyer would be most likely to review trade directories in which stage of the business buying process?
In the generally accepted stages of the business buying process, the step following product specification is ________.
general need description
In the generally accepted stages of the business buying process, the step following problem recognition is ________.
Members of the buying center at ABC Kid's World are drawing up a list of desired toy supplier attributes and their relative importance. Next, they intend to compare several suppliers to these attributes. In which step of the business buying process is the buying center at ABC Kid's World engaged?
Before selecting a supplier, many companies consider the supplier's reputation, ethical corporate behavior, and honest communication.
Which of the following statements about the supplier selection stage of the business buying decision process is true?
During the ________ stage of the business buying decision process, the buying center assesses the proposals.
In the case of maintenance, repair, and operating items, buyers may use a ________ rather than periodic purchase orders.
In which stage of the business buying process is a supplier's task to make sure that the supplier is giving the buyer the expected satisfaction?
Following a purchase, the buyer and seller would both monitor which phase of the new-task buying situation?
vendor managed inventory
Under a ________, a supplier monitors and replenishes a buyer's stock automatically as needed.
Japanese people tend to put a high value on rank.
Which of the following accurately describes a cultural difference international marketers should be aware of?
A) Outside of English-speaking countries, most business leaders do not speak English.
B) British businesspeople are accustomed to making more business deals over the telephone than in person.
C) German people tend to be impressed by overstatement and showiness.
D) Japanese people tend to put a high value on rank.
E) French businesspeople are accustomed to building relationships between buyer and seller through quick and easy familiarity.
Cultures really are different, so do your best to learn about those differences.
Which of the following is the best advice for an international marketer planning to interact with businesspeople from many different cultures?
A) Trust your instincts and behave as you normally do.
B) Remember that countries all over the world are fascinated with American culture.
C) Cultures really are different, so do your best to learn about those differences.
D) Use the same strategies with all of your clients, no matter what their cultural backgrounds are.
E) Assume that businesspeople from different cultures will make accommodations for you.
total customer relationship
Instead of focusing on managing individual purchases, a seller should focus on managing the ________.
Which of the following can be especially useful for a company that needs to conduct secure and frequent communications and transactions with key suppliers?
Reverse auctions, trading exchanges, and company buying sites are all ways that companies can participate in ________.
The Bentley department store chain makes extensive use of e-procurement. As a buyer, the store should expect to enjoy all of these benefits of e-procurement EXCEPT ________.
elimination of inventory problems
B-to-B e-procurement yields many benefits. These include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) reduced transaction costs
B) more efficient purchasing for both buyers and sellers
C) elimination of inventory problems
D) reduced order processing costs
E) elimination of much of the paperwork associated with traditional ordering procedures
can erode established customer-supplier relationships
A problem with the rapidly expanding use of e-purchasing is that it ________.
concern over security
The leading barrier to expanding electronic links with customers and partners online is ________.
two commonly used techniques to safeguard Internet and extranet transactions
Firewalls and encryption are ________.
Providing e-procurement security can involve a substantial financial investment from a company.
Which of the following statements about e-procurement security issues is true?
A) There are no security risks for companies doing business on the Internet.
B) Firewalls provide adequate security for all Internet exchanges.
C) Hackers are not interested in many business-to-business transactions.
D) Extranet users and Internet users face the same security risks and use the same security tools.
E) Providing e-procurement security can involve a substantial financial investment from a company.
Sage, Inc., provides food services to schools, hospitals, and nursing homes in the Midwest. Management at Sage is involved in the ________ market.
low budgets; captive patrons
Many institutional markets are characterized by ________ and ________.
Government organizations tend to favor ________ suppliers over ________ suppliers.
low sales volume
All of the following are difficulties associated with selling to government buyers EXCEPT ________.
A) considerable paperwork
D) low sales volume
E) large group decision making
U.S. Government Purchasing, Specifications, and Sales Directory is a(n) ________ publication.
There are many factors considered in government buying, but ________ is, above all, the most important.
elected officials; marketing effort
Total government spending is determined by ________ rather than by any ________ to develop this market
the US government
The world's largest buyer of products and services is ________.
Sue buys a gift for her mother.
Which of the following is NOT part of the business market?
A) Scott Sign Systems sells interior signs to an Alabama resort.
B) A municipal government buys chemicals for its city swimming pools.
C) Sue buys a gift for her mother.
D) A Canadian software company buys tickets to send a group of salespeople to make a presentation to a heavy equipment manufacturer in Japan.
E) Airmark sells a vinyl printing press to a manufacturer of plastic bags.
Giant Food Stores buy a lot of frozen turkey products at Thanksgiving and Christmas due to high consumer demand. This is an example of ________ demand
Demand for outboard motors depends on consumers purchasing fishing boats. This is an example of ________ demand.
ABC Enterprises sold 9,000 units @ $2.99/unit in July. The firm sold 9,000 units @ $4.29/unit in August. This illustrates ________ demand
Buyers and sellers in the business market build close, long-term relationships
UPS serves both consumer and business markets, but most of its revenues come from its business customers. UPS has become a strategic logistics ally for many of its business customers, going far beyond offering delivery services to offering inventory management, international trade management, and even financing to its commercial customers. This is an example of which of the following differences between the consumer and business markets?
You call in a department manager to assist in a purchase of industrial equipment. You are considering a change in product specifications, terms, and possibly suppliers. This is most likely a ________ situation.
It often involves products with low risks.
Which of the following is most likely true about a straight rebuy?
A) It requires little customer relationship management.
B) It is more complex than a new-task situation.
C) It often involves products with low risks.
D) It occurs when a buyer wants to locate the best deal on the market.
E) It involves more opportunities for "out" buyers than other types of purchasing situations do.
You regularly purchase cleaning supplies for your custodial staff, using the same vendor and ordering relatively consistent amounts of the same products with each purchase. This is an example of a ________ situation
Worthington Farm raises chickens. For years, it has used wooden coops for hauling its poultry to market. The owner of the farm needs to buy some replacement coops and is considering buying plastic coops that are slightly more expensive than wooden ones but much easier to clean after use. This purchase of coops is an example of a ________.
The EPA has mandated that, in order to reduce local pollution, your printing plant switch from oil-based to water-based inks. This will require entirely new printing presses and a new printing plate technology. After carefully searching through numerous manufacturers' equipment descriptions and gathering opinions from all relevant parties related to the work, the printing plant's buying center will be ready to make this ________ purchase.
decider and buyer
Don Brady is responsible for obtaining price quotations from various vendors. After reviewing them, Don then determines whether or not to include the vendor on the approved vendor list. Don apparently plays two roles, that of ________ and ________.
One of Dr. Albrecht's dental assistants told the dentist he should buy a machine that would sterilize his tools without using any water because water tends to cause the tools to rust or corrode over time. In terms of the buying center, the dental assistant had the role of ________.
One of Dr. Albrecht's dental assistants told the dentist he should buy a machine that would sterilize his tools without using any water because water tends to cause the tools to rust or corrode over time. Dr. Albrecht, who runs a solo practice in a small rural town, located some articles on the chemical sterilizer and read about how the machine works. After gathering more information and talking to salespeople, Dr. Albrecht placed his order for the machine. In terms of the buying center, Dr. Albrecht had the role of ________.
A trucking company is considering purchasing new trucks that are powered by ethanol instead of diesel fuel. In terms of the buying center, the truck drivers who must make sure that the trucks do not run out of fuel are the ________.
Worthington Farm raises chickens. For years, it has used wooden coops for hauling its poultry to market. When Bob Worthington went to reuse some of his coops, he noticed many of them could not be sufficiently cleaned for reuse and needed to be replaced. Worthington was at which stage of the business buying process when he decided to replace his old coops?
John Herr's company has standardized the size of its paper bags so that each bag can be used in five to seven different store departments. This approach to cost reduction likely took place in the ________ stage of the business buying process.
In what type of buying situation would a seller most likely send only a catalog to the buyer during the proposal solicitation stage of the business buying process?
Most newspapers rely on ________ so they do not need to rely on only one supplier to provide the tons of paper that they use annually
Pace Hardware uses Learningnow.com to improve sales force effectiveness and facilitate sharing of expertise. It allows Pace retailers to link with other Pace retailers to ask for managerial and marketing advice. It also allows Pace retailers to ask their suppliers about product usage, deliveries, and warranties, and it allows suppliers to send new-product information directly to Pace retailers. In this scenario, Pace Hardware is using a(n) ________.
Which of the following was most likely being used when Boeing received orders for $100 million in spare parts in the first year its Web site was in operation?
B) an intranet
C) single sourcing
D) blanket contracting
E) a reverse auction site
All of the following organizations are likely considered to be a part of the institutional market EXCEPT ________.
A) LaGrange Community Hospital
B) Joliet Prison
C) Lancaster Township
D) The Water Street Rescue Mission
E) Millersville University
the promotion mix
A company's total marketing communications mix consists of a special blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct-marketing tools that the company uses to communicate customer value and build customer relationships. This is also called ________.
The use of short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service is called ________.
Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor is called ________.
Which of the five major promotion tools includes building up a positive corporate image and handling unfavorable stories and events?
Which of the following is NOT a major category in a company's promotion mix?
A) sales promotion
B) strategic positioning
C) direct marketing
D) public relations
Which major promotion category makes use of catalogs, telephone marketing, kiosks, and the Internet?
Which major promotion category makes use of displays, discounts, coupons, and demonstrations?
The promotion mix is the company's primary communication activity; the marketing mix must be coordinated for the greatest communication impact. What is NOT included in the entire marketing mix?
Mass-media advertising routinely involves a company investing millions or even billions of dollars to reach tens of ________ of customers with a single ad.
the internet and other technologies
Today's consumers do not need to rely on marketer-supplied information about products and services because they can use ________ to seek out a wealth of information
Mass media no longer capture the majority of promotional budgets.
Which of the following is NOT a factor in the changes occurring in today's marketing communications?
A) Mass markets have fragmented, and marketers are shifting away from mass marketing.
B) Improvements in communication technologies are changing how companies and customers communicate with each other.
C) Companies routinely invest millions of dollars in the mass media.
D) Mass media no longer capture the majority of promotional budgets.
E) Today's consumers are better informed about products and services
Moving away from ________, marketers have been shifting toward highly focused marketing, spawning a new generation of more specialized and highly targeted communications efforts.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a specialized and highly-targeted media that an advertiser might use to reach smaller customer segments?
A) cable television channels
D) network television
E) online social networks
Companies are doing less ________ and more ________ as a result of an explosion of more focused media that better match today's targeting strategies.
the possibilities of new digital technologies
In the "chaos scenario" predicted by some advertising industry experts, the old mass-media communications model will be abandoned in favor of ________.
TV and other mass media still capture the lion share of promotional budgets.
All of the following are reasons that marketers are losing confidence in television advertising EXCEPT which one?
A) TV ad spending is rising at a slower rate than online ad spending.
B) TV and other mass media still capture the lion share of promotional budgets.
C) Many viewers are using video on demand and TiVo-like systems.
D) Younger consumers are using different media.
E) TV audience size is on the decline.
communications often come from different parts of the company
Companies often fail to integrate their various communications to consumers because ________.
All too often companies today have failed to ________ their various communications channels, resulting in a hodgepodge of communications to consumers.
don't distinguish between message sources
Consumers today receive commercial messages from a broad range of sources. However, consumers ________ the way marketers do.
integrated marketing communications
More companies are adopting the concept of ________, which carefully integrates and coordinates the company's many communication channels to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling message about the organization and its brands
communications channels that should be integrated under the concept of integrated marketing communications
Advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, public relations, and direct marketing are all ________.
the same message, look, and feel
Integrated marketing communications require a company's mass-market advertisements, Web site, e-mail, and personal selling communications to all have ________.
marketing communications director
To produce better communications consistency, a unified company image, and greater sales impact, some companies employ a(n) ________.
Integrated marketing communications produces better communications ________ and greater ________ impact.
Today, marketers are moving toward viewing communications as managing the ________ over time.
Integrated marketing communications involves identifying the target audience and shaping a well-coordinated ________ to elicit the desired audience response.
an audit of all the potential customer touch points
Using integrated marketing communications, the communications process should start with ________.
Which of the following is NOT one of the four major communication functions?
The communication channel a company uses to move its advertising messages from sender to receiver is called the ________.
The receiver assigns meaning to the symbols encoded by a company in its advertisements through a process known as ________.
In the communication process, the reaction of the receiver after being exposed to a message is called the ________.
When a customer lets a producer know something about its products or advertising, the customer is providing ________.
A consumer is reading a magazine with an advertisement, but is distracted from reading the advertisement or its key points. This unplanned static or distortion during the communication process is called ________.
overlaps with; effective
In the communication process, the more the sender's field of experience ________ that of the receiver, the more ________ the message is likely to be.
To communicate effectively, a marketing communicator must ________ the consumer's field of experience.
Marketing communicators must be good at ________ messages that take into account how the target audience ________ them
deliver products to the customer
Marketing communicators must do all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) identify the target audience
B) deliver products to the customer
C) determine the communication objectives
D) collect feedback
E) choose the media through which to send a message
The six ________ stages that consumers normally pass through on their way to making a purchase include awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase.
The six buyer-readiness stages include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
In the model of buyer-readiness stages, the first stage is ________.
use extensive "teaser" advertising
All of the following are strategies a marketer would use to lead consumers into making the final step toward a purchase EXCEPT which one?
A) offer special promotional prices
B) offer add-on features
C) offer premiums
D) use extensive "teaser" advertising
E) C or D
A message showing a product's quality, economy, value, or performance is called a(n) ________ appeal
Marketers using humor in their messages claim that they attract more attention and create more loyalty and belief in the brand. This type of message is called a(n) ________ appeal
Though a popular appeal, when used poorly ________ can detract from comprehension, quickly wear out its welcome, overshadow the product, or even irritate consumers.
Moral appeals are directed to the audience's sense of what is "right" and ________.
draw a conclusion
The communicator must decide how to handle message structure issues. One issue is whether to ________ or not.
A(n) ________ argument is only likely to be effective when the audience is highly educated or likely to hear opposing claims, or when the communicator has a negative association to overcome.
In designing the message structure, marketers must decide whether to present the ________ arguments first or last in a message
The two broad types of ________ channels are personal and nonpersonal.
Communication through the mail is categorized as a(n) ________ communication channel.
Creating word-of-mouth campaigns by cultivating opinion leaders and getting them to spread information about a product or service to others in their communities is known as ________.
Nonpersonal communication channels include major media, ________, and events.
Vast numbers of consumers are aware of your product. It is now your goal to enhance preference for your product. You plan to use nonpersonal communications through print media. This will include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
C) Internet "chats"
D) direct mail
To ________, a marketer can ask target audience members whether they remember the message, how many times they saw it, and what points they remember.
________ from marketing communications may suggest changes in the promotion program or in the product offer itself.
Companies use all of the following methods to set their advertising budget EXCEPT the ________.
A) objective-and-task method
B) integrated method
C) competitive-parity method
D) percentage-of-sales method
E) affordable method
Using the ________ method for setting an advertising budget, the company starts with total revenues, deducts operating expenses and capital outlays, and then devotes some portion of the remaining funds to advertising
percentage of sales
Though the ________ method of setting an advertising budget is simple to use and helps management think about the relationships among promotion spending, selling price, and profit per unit, it wrongly views sales as the cause of promotion rather than the result
Which method of setting an advertising budget is based on analyzing competitors' spending?
objective and task
Perhaps the most logical budget-setting method is the ________ method because it is based on spending necessary to accomplishing specific promotion goals.
It slowly reaches many people.
Advertising has some shortcomings. What is NOT one of them?
A) It is impersonal.
B) It can be very costly.
C) It slowly reaches many people.
D) It carries on one-way communication with the audience.
E) It does not make audience members feel the need to respond.
________ is the company's most expensive promotion tool.
B) Personal selling
C) Mass media
D) Public relations
Which promotional tool is most effective in building up buyers' preferences, convictions, and, most importantly, actions?
Sales promotion features a wide assortment of tools. Which of the following is NOT one of these tools?
E) cents-off deals
"Buy it now" is the message of ________.
________ consists of strong short-term incentives that invite and reward quick responses from customers.
________ is very believable because news stories, features, sponsorships, and events seem more real and believable to readers than ads do.
Which promotional tool is described as nonpublic, immediate, customized, and interactive?
Which promotional mix strategy directs marketing efforts toward final consumers?
Which promotional mix strategy directs marketing efforts toward market channel members?
Business-to-consumer companies are more likely to emphasize a ________ promotion strategy, while business-to-business companies are more likely to emphasize a ________ promotion strategy.
study the competitor's communications and promotions
Which of the following is LEAST important for integrating a firm's marketing communications?
A) analyze internal and external trends
B) audit the pockets of communications spending throughout the organization
C) identify all customer touch points for the company and its brands
D) study the competitor's communications and promotions
E) create performance measures for all communications elements
all of the above
Bait-and-switch advertising ________.
A) attracts buyers under false pretenses
B) is unethical
C) is illegal
D) is deceptive
E) all of the above
advertising a cheaper brand but only making a more expensive one available to customers
Which of the following would be classified as bait-and-switch advertising?
A) advertising a cheaper brand but only making a more expensive one available to customers
B) raising a product's prices
C) attempting to charge less for a brand than for manufacturers' brands
D) advertising service packages that cannot actually be provided
E) favoring certain customers over others through trade promotions
A company's salespeople should always follow the rules of ________.
A.Y. McDonald, a manufacturer of pumps and plumbing valves, employs regional salespeople to sell its products to wholesalers and cities. This is an example of ________.
Tara Keegan owns Live Well, a small chain of health stores offering a variety of natural health products and related services. In order to implement integrated marketing communications, Tara has hired a marketing communications director, whose job it will be to ensure that each ________ will deliver a consistent and positive message about the company.
Harpo Enterprises maintains the Oprah Winfrey show, a Web site, and O magazine. Because Harpo Enterprises practices integrated marketing communications, these different brand contacts all maintain ________ in design and tone.
integrated marketing communication
Delia's is a clothing retailer that targets teenage girls. It runs coordinated promotions for its catalogs, Web site, and retail outlets. It uses the same models in its catalog and in its print ads as well as on its Web site. Delia's works to make sure its public relations activities as well as its sales promotions harmonize with its advertising in all venues. From this information, you can infer that Delia's is using ________.
HP's advertising agency assembles words and illustrations into an advertisement that will convey the company's intended brand message. In the communication process, HP is ________.
The decision to use a cleaning genie to communicate the strength and power of Mr. Clean cleaning liquid is representative of the ________ process of the communication model.
In the communication process, an actual HP printer/fax machine advertisement is called ________.
) An ad for Maybelline age-minimizing makeup in Ladies' Home Journal magazine featured actress Melina Kanakaredes and offered readers a $1-off coupon when they try the new makeup. In terms of the communication model, the sender of this message is ________.
Ladies Home Journal
An ad for Maybelline age-minimizing makeup in Ladies' Home Journal magazine featured actress Melina Kanakaredes and offered readers a $1-off coupon when they try the new makeup. In terms of the communication model, the medium of this ad is ________.
the number of people who redeem the coupon
An ad for Maybelline age-minimizing makeup in Ladies' Home Journal magazine featured actress Melina Kanakaredes and offered readers a $1-off coupon when they try the new makeup. In terms of the communication model, which of the following would be the best way for the source to measure feedback?
Mercy University's initial ads for the school's new MBA program are most likely intended to create ________.
When a car-maker wants to introduce a new model, it is most likely to began with an extensive ________ advertising campaign to create name familiarity and interest
An example of a(n) ________ appeal is the Salvation Army appeal, "While you were trying to figure out what to get the man who has everything, don't forget the man who has nothing."
A and B
) Which of the following represent(s) a two-sided message?
A) Listerine tastes bad twice a day.
B) Heinz Ketchup is slow good.
C) Etonic athletic shoes are built so you can last.
D) A and B
E) none of the above
A manufacturer of a variety of technological devices asked its marketing department to develop inexpensive methods of building and maintaining brand awareness and excitement. The marketing department then recruited consumers who were early adopters of technological devices to spread the word about the company's new products. This is an example of ________.
the competitive-parity method
Toward the end of the fiscal year, the owner of a small company came back from lunch concerned because he had learned that a business targeted to the same customers as his was planning on spending $150,000 on promotion. As soon as he arrived at the office, he called his financial manager and said, "I want to budget $150,000 for next year's promotion." Which method of promotional budgeting did the owner want to use?
An e-mail from Amazon.com offers free shipping on your next purchase of more than $35. This is an example of ________.
Mariah Goldberg, a marketing manager for a manufacturer of children's toys, is looking for ways to reach potential customers who typically avoid salespeople and advertisements. Which of the following would be the most economical promotional tool for Mariah to use?
A newspaper article announced that VoiceStream Wireless, the nation's sixth-largest wireless carrier, was changing its name to T-Mobile and that to begin the makeover process it had replaced spokesperson Jamie Lee Curtis with Catherine Zeta-Jones. Of which element of the promotion mix is this an example?
push and pull
Clean and Clear, a large producer of all-natural hair care and beauty products, is most likely to use which of the promotion mix strategies to gain increased shelf space in stores and to gain increased customer sales?
a push strategy
An ad in a professional journal targeted to an audience of dentists asked dentists to recommend Crest toothpaste to their patients. It offered toothpaste samples that dentists could buy at cost to give to their patients to encourage patients to take better care of their teeth. The manufacturer of Crest toothpaste was using ________.
a pull strategy
Glasis is a type of paint made specifically for use on cars. An ad in Motor Trend magazine advising consumers to request their body shops use Glasis paint is an example of how a company uses ________.
The strategy may spark a spiral of price-slashing that will undercut the brand's future for short-term gains.
A maker of vitamin drinks wants to compete with the leading brands in the category and has decided to use a heavy push strategy, putting most of the brand's marketing budget into trade and consumer sales promotion. Which of the following is a potential disadvantage of this approach?
Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor is called ________.
the promotion mix
A company's total marketing communications package consists of a special blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct-marketing tools that the company uses to communicate customer value and build customer relationships. This is also called ________.
integrating humor and creativity into its minicampaigns
According to the opening scenario, GEICO has become the fourth-largest insurance company by ________.
selecting a target market
All of the following are important decisions during the process of developing an advertising program EXCEPT ________.
A) setting advertising objectives
B) setting the advertising budget
C) developing advertising strategy
D) selecting a target market
E) evaluating advertising campaigns
Advertising ________ define the task that advertising must accomplish with a specific target audience during a specific period of time
An advertising objective is classified by its primary purpose, which is to inform, persuade, or ________.
suggest new uses for a product
Which of the following is an objective of informative advertising?
A) build brand preference
B) change customer perceptions of brand value
C) encourage customers to switch brands
D) suggest new uses for a product
E) keep brand in customer minds during off-seasons
maintain customer relationships
What is one of the primary goals of reminder advertising?
When the advertising objective is to build primary demand for a new product category, ________ advertising will most likely be used
________ advertising becomes more important as competition increases. The company's objective is to build selective demand.
) Persuasive advertising becomes ________ advertising when a company directly or indirectly compares its brand with one or more other brands
Competitors respond with their own ads, which often results in negative publicity for both brands.
What is a potential problem associated with comparative advertising?
A product in the maturity stage will often require ________ advertising.
Familiar products such as Coca-Cola are more likely to use ________.
set its advertising budget
After determining its advertising objectives, the company's next step in developing an advertising program is to ________.
All of the following require high advertising budgets EXCEPT ________.
A) products in competitive markets
B) undifferentiated brands
C) new products
D) low-share brands
E) mature brands
Which of the following may require heavy advertising in order to be set apart from similar products?
A) undifferentiated brands
B) specialty brands
C) international brands
D) mature brands
E) flanker brands
Some large corporations have developed ________ to help determine the optimal investment across various media; such tools are useful when determining the relationship between promotional spending and brand sales.
selecting advertising media
Which of the following is an element of developing an advertising strategy?
A) selecting advertising media
B) using sophisticated statistical models
C) setting advertising objectives
D) evaluating advertising campaigns
E) setting the advertising budget
Soaring media costs, focused target marketing strategies, and the growing array of new media have increased the importance of ________.
message and media
The success of the MINI Let's Motor campaign exemplifies the partnership between which two elements?
gain the attention of consumers
To be successful, an advertisement must ________.
Consumers have more choices about what to watch or not watch.
The Internet, video on demand, and DVRs (digital video recorders) present which of the following problems for marketers?
Madison & Vine
Which of the following represents the merge between advertising and entertainment?
A) Madison & Vine
B) Wall St. & Fifth Ave
C) Buzz marketing
D) product placement
What is the term used to describe the idea that will be communicated to consumers through an advertisement?
Developing an effective message strategy begins with identifying ________ that can be used as advertising appeals
message strategy statements
________ tend to be straightforward outlines of benefits and positioning points that the advertiser wants to stress.
After creating message strategy statements, the advertiser must develop a compelling ________ that will bring the message strategy to life in a distinctive and memorable way.
The big idea or the creative concept may emerge as a(n) ________, a phrase, or a combination of the two.
meaningful, believable, and distinctive
Which of the following are the three characteristics of an advertising appeal?
The goal of ________ is to make an advertisement so useful that people want to watch it.
American Eagle Outfitters has increased interest in its clothing products using which of the following advertising forms?
Product placement in television programs and movies is an example of ________.
Consumers will remember the advertisement but forget the brand
According to experts, what is the biggest potential problem facing advertainment?
slice of life
Which message execution style depicts average people using a product in an everyday setting?
Advertisements built around dream themes are using which type of execution style?
The AFLAC duck and Tony the Tiger are examples of ________ used in successful advertising campaigns.
What is the first element that a reader notices in a print ad?
consumer generated messages
) An amateur video showing the result of mixing Diet Coke with Mentos candies exemplifies which growing trend in advertising?
Consumers become engaged in the product and consider its value in their lives
How can consumer-generated ads benefit companies and their products?
deciding on format elements
All of the following are major steps in advertising media selection EXCEPT ________.
A) deciding on reach, frequency, and impact
B) choosing among major media types
C) selecting specific media vehicles
D) deciding on format elements
E) deciding on media timing
Subway filed a lawsuit asserting that Quiznos ads made false claims about Subway.
What was one of the results of the "Quiznos vs. Subway TV Ad Challenge"?
________ is a measure of the percentage of people in the target market who are exposed to the ad campaign during a given period of time
The number of times an average person in the target market is exposed to an ad is known as the ________.
The advertiser must decide on the ________, or desired media impact, of a message in a specific medium.
television and magazines
For many years, ________ have dominated the media mix used by national advertisers
Advertisers are increasingly shifting larger portions of their budgets to media that cost less and target more effectively. Which of the following is harmed the MOST by such a shift?
All of the following are examples of specialized and highly-targeted media that an advertiser might use to reach smaller customer segments EXCEPT ________.
A) cable television channels
E) product placement in video games
The Internet, direct mail, magazines, and radio all offer advertisers which of the following advantages?
Companies are doing less ________ and more ________ as a result of an explosion of more focused media that better match today's targeting strategies.
30 Rock and Newsweek are both examples of ________, specific media within each general media type
cost per thousand persons reached
The media planner looks both at the total cost of using a medium and at the ________.
When a media planner determines whether an advertisement for dishwashing soap should be placed in Sports Illustrated or Good Housekeeping, the planner is evaluating the media vehicle's ________.
________ means scheduling ads evenly within a given period. ________ means scheduling ads unevenly over a given time period
Scheduling ads unevenly, which is called ________, builds awareness that is intended to be carried over to the next advertising period.
measuring advertising's efficiency and effectiveness
According to the Association of National Advertisers, what is the most important issue for today's advertisers?
price and availability
Sales and profit effects of advertising are difficult to measure because of factors outside of the ad campaign such as ________.
One way to measure the ________ effects of advertising is to ________ past sales and past advertising expenditures.
higher appeal to varying demographics
All of the following are benefits of standardized global advertising EXCEPT ________.
A) lower advertising costs
B) greater global advertising coordination
C) higher appeal to varying demographics
D) more consistent worldwide image
E) greater consistency among international Web sites
Most international advertisers develop global ________ for the sake of efficiency, but they adapt their advertising ________ to make them responsive to local market needs and expectations.
The Japanese culture views bragging as rude.
Apple has modified its "I'm a Mac; I'm a PC" ad campaign in Japan for which of the following reasons?
A) The Japanese government opposes direct-comparison advertisements.
B) Japanese culture frowns upon humorous advertisements on television.
C) Most Japanese would not notice the differences in style between the two men in the ad.
D) Most Japanese computer users prefer PCs to Apples.
E) The Japanese culture views bragging as rude.
Will the commercial deliver a high return on advertising investment?
What is the primary question that must be asked by an advertiser before deciding to run a commercial during the Super Bowl?
earned a better response for less money through an outdoor campaign
Unilever decided not to purchase advertising during the Super Bowl a second time because the maker of Dove ________.
Which of the five major promotion tools includes building up a positive corporate image and handling unfavorable stories and events
Lobbying, or building and maintaining relations with legislators and government officials to influence legislation and regulation, is part of ________.
media vehicle selection
Which of the following functions is LEAST likely to be performed by a public relations department?
A) product publicity
C) public affairs
D) investor relations
E) media vehicle selection
When nonprofit organizations need financial or volunteer support they often turn to public relations experts to help them in the area of ________.
Trade associations have used ________ to rebuild interest in declining commodities such as eggs, pork, and milk.
The company's public relations department held preview parties and encouraged people to blog about the system.
Why was the introduction of Nintendo's Wii game console especially successful?
Many public relations professionals see their jobs as simply communicating, not necessarily brand building.
Why is public realtions often overlooked as a tool for supporting product marketing objectives?
The authors of the book The Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR state that all of the following firms found success with very little advertising EXCEPT ________.
A) Starbucks Coffee
B) Body Shop
public relations professionals
________ use several tools, including the news, speeches, corporate identity materials, and special events.
corporate identity materials
Logos, uniforms, brochures, and company trucks are all examples of ________ that can be used to help a company create a visual image for the public
News conferences, press tours, and grand openings are examples of ________ , one of the tools commonly used by public relations professionals
Johnson & Johnson used ________ when it launched its Aveeno Positively Ageless product line through a YouTube video of an artist's chalk drawing; consumers spread the word about the video, which was viewed by nearly one million people.
What are the communication and sales objectives of U-Frame-It?
U-Frame-It is a small company that has hired a local ad agency to put together an advertising campaign. Which of the following questions should be answered first?
A) What percentage of the budget should be for U-Frame-It radio ads?
B) Which type of media vehicle is most appropriate for U-Frame-It ads?
C) What are the communication and sales objectives of U-Frame-It?
D) How does U-Frame-It's competition advertise?
E) What is the demographic of U-Frame-It's customer base?
Suave ran ads featuring a woman with beautiful hair questioning "Suave or Matrix? Can You Tell?" This is an example of ________.
When Proctor & Gamble developed the Mr. Clean Magic Eraser, the company needed to explain how the product cleans grime from walls without removing paint. What type of campaign was most likely used by Proctor & Gamble for the Mr. Clean Magic Eraser?
heavy advertising to set it apart from others
Apex detergent is relatively undifferentiated from two other detergent brands: Acme and Brighton detergent; therefore, Apex may require ________.
In its advertisements, Timex promotes its affordable and sturdy watches. Fossil emphasizes style and fashion in its advertisements, while Rolex stresses luxury and status. These are all examples of ________ appeals.
An ad for a new convection oven shows a busy professional woman serving dinner to her family. The convection oven is seen in the background, and the headline reads, "The latest development in time travel." This is an example of what type of execution style?
When AFLAC uses a duck to represent its product, which type of execution style is being employed?
You receive a report that 68% of your target market has been exposed to your ad campaign during a given period of time. The information in the report relates to ________.
You are looking to advertise your new product, and you want good mass-marketing coverage and low cost per exposure. You should choose ________ as your advertising media.
a direct mail piece sent to the schools
Franklin & Marshall College wishes to contact high school seniors at independent schools in Pennsylvania. Which of the following media would be most effective and efficient?