Radiology Exam Review - Image Protection & Evaluation Original

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Appleton & Lange Review For The Radiography Exam Section 4.) Image Protection & Evaluation

Which of the following influences geometric unsharpness?
1. OID
2. Focal-object distance
3. SID
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Of the following groups of exposure factors, which will produce the greatest radiographic density?
(A) 200 mA, 0.03 s, 72-in source-image distance (SID)
(B) 100 mA, 0.03 s, 36-in SID
(C) 100 mA, 0.06 s, 36-in SID
(D) 200 mA, 0.06 s, 72-in SID

(C) 100 mA, 0.06 s, 36-in SID

[The formula mA × s = mAs is used to determine each mAs]

Which of the following groups of exposure factors would be most appropriate to control involuntary motion?
(A) 400 mA, 0.03 s
(B) 200 mA, 0.06 s
(C) 600 mA, 0.02 s
(D) 100 mA, 0.12 s

(C) 600 mA, 0.02 s

[t is essential to use the shortest possible exposure time in order to have a "stop action" effect.]

When green-sensitive rare earth screens are properly matched with the correct film, what type of safelight should be used in the darkroom?
(A) Wratten 6B
(B) GBX or GS1
(C) Amber
(D) None

(B) GBX or GS1

[The GBX or GS1 is a red filter that is safe with green-sensitive film emulsion.]

When involuntary motion must be considered, the exposure time may be cut in half if the kVp is
(A) doubled.
(B) increased by 15 percent.
(C) increased by 25 percent.
(D) increased by 35 percent.

(B) increased by 15 percent.

Which of the following technical changes would best serve to remedy the effect of widely different tissue densities?
(A) Use of high-speed screens
(B) Use of a high-ratio grid
(C) High-kVp exposure factors
(D) High-mAs exposure factors

(C) High-kVp exposure factors

Which of the following are methods of limiting the production of scattered radiation?
1. Using moderate-ratio grids
2. Using the prone position for abdominal exams
3. Restricting the field size to the smallest practical size
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

The purpose of the automatic processor's circulation system is to
(A) monitor and adjust temperature.
(B) agitate, mix, and filter solutions.
(C) move the film and change its direction.
(D) monitor the solution and replace it as necessary.

(B) agitate, mix, and filter solutions.

A quality assurance program serves to
1. keep patient dose to a minimum.
2. keep radiographic quality consistent.
3. ensure equipment efficiency.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Exposure factors of 90 kVp and 4 mAs are used for a particular nongrid exposure. What should be the new mAs if an 8:1 grid is added?
(A) 8 mAs
(B) 12 mAs
(C) 16 mAs
(D) 20 mAs
(Saia, p 328)

(C) 16 mAs

[to change from nongrid to an 8:1 grid, multiply the original mAs by a factor of 4. A new mAs of 16 is required]

n order to change nongrid to grid exposure or to adjust exposure when changing from one grid ratio to another, it is necessary to recall the factor for each grid ratio:
(Saia, p 328)

No grid = 1 × the original mAs
5:1 grid = 2 × the original mAs
6:1 grid = 3 × the original mAs
8:1 grid = 4 × the original mAs
12:1 (or 10:1) grid = 5 × the original mAs
16:1 grid = 6 × the original mAs

The primary source of scattered radiation is the
(A) patient.
(B) tabletop.
(C) x-ray tube.
(D) grid.

(A) patient.

The chest radiograph shown in Figure 4-1 demonstrates
(A) motion.
(B) focal spot blur.
(C) double exposure.
(D) poor screen / film contact.
(Bushong, p 441)

(C) double exposure.

Which of the following is (are) classified as rare earth phosphors?
1. Lanthanum oxybromide
2. Gadolinium oxysulfide
3. Cesium iodide
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following pathologic conditions would require an increase in exposure factors?
(A) Pneumoperitoneum
(B) Obstructed bowel
(C) Renal colic
(D) Ascites

(D) Ascites

Using fixed-mAs and variable-kVp technical factors, each centimeter increase in patient thickness requires what adjustment in kilovoltage?
(A) Increase 2 kVp
(B) Decrease 2 kVp
(C) Increase 4 kVp
(D) Decrease 4 kVp
(Shephard, pp 299-300)

(A) Increase 2 kVp

[When the variable-kVp method is used, a particular mAs is assigned to each body part. As part thickness increases, the kVp (penetration) is also increased.]

The microswitch for controlling the amount of replenishment used in an automatic processor is located at the
(A) receiving bin.
(B) crossover roller.
(C) entrance roller.
(D) replenishment pump.

(C) entrance roller.

The device shown in Figure 4-12 is used for
(A) tomographic quality assurance (QA) testing.
(B) timer and rectifier testing.
(C) mammography QA testing.
(D) kV calibration testing.
.(Bushong, p 327

(C) mammography QA testing.

Distortion can be caused by
1. tube angle.
2. the position of the organ or structure within the body.
3. the radiographic positioning of the part.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

The variation in photon distribution between the anode and cathode ends of the x-ray tube is known as
(A) the line focus principle.
(B) the anode heel effect.
(C) the inverse square law.
(D) Bohr's theory.

(B) the anode heel effect.

Which of the following is most likely to produce a radiograph with a long scale of contrast?
(A) Increased photon energy
(B) Increased screen speed
(C) Increased mAs
(D) Increased SID

(A) Increased photon energy

A 15 percent increase in kVp accompanied by a 50 percent decrease in mAs will result in a(n)
(A) shorter scale of contrast.
(B) increase in exposure latitude.
(C) increase in radiographic density.
(D) decrease in recorded detail.

(B) increase in exposure latitude.

Materials that emit light when stimulated by x-ray photons are called
(A) ions.
(B) electrodes.
(C) phosphors.
(D) crystals.

(C) phosphors.

Which of the following examinations might require the use of 120 kVp?
1. AP abdomen
2. Chest radiograph
3. Barium-filled stomach
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

(D) 2 and 3 only

A film emulsion having wide latitude is likely to exhibit
(A) high density.
(B) low density.
(C) high contrast.
(D) low contrast.

(D) low contrast.

Which of the following groups of exposure factors will produce the longest scale of contrast?
(A) 200 mA, 0.08 s, 95 kVp, 12:1 grid
(B) 500 mA, 0.03 s, 81 kVp, 8:1 grid
(C) 300 mA, 0.05 s, 95 kVp, 8:1 grid
(D) 600 mA, 1/40 s, 70 kVp, 6:1 grid
(Shephard, pp 305-308)

(C) 300 mA, 0.05 s, 95 kVp, 8:1 grid

[Because a combination of increased kilovoltage and a low-ratio grid would allow the greatest amount of scattered radiation to reach the film, thereby producing more gray tones, C is the best answer.]

How is the mAs adjusted in an AEC system as the film / screen combination is decreased?
(A) The mAs increases as film / screen speed decreases.
(B) Both the mAs and the kVp increase as film / screen speed decreases.
(C) The mAs decreases as film / screen speed decreases.
(D) The mAs remains unchanged as film / screen speed decreases.
(Saia, p 305)

(D) The mAs remains unchanged as film / screen speed decreases.

A particular radiograph was produced using 6 mAs and 110 kVp with an 8:1 ratio grid. The radiograph is to be repeated using a 16:1 ratio grid. What should be the new mAs?
(A) 3 mAs
(B) 6 mAs
(C) 9 mAs
(D) 12 mAs
(Saia, p 328)

(C) 9 mAs

To adjust exposure factors, you simply compare the old with the new:

6 (old mAs) 4 (old grid factor)
___________=______________
x (new mAs) 6 (new grid factor)

4x = 36; x = 9 mAs using 16:1 grid

Which of the following is (are) associated with subject contrast?
1. Patient thickness
2. Tissue density
3. Kilovoltage
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Grid cutoff due to off-centering would result in
(A) overall loss of density.
(B) both sides of the film being underexposed.
(C) overexposure under the anode end.
(D) underexposure under the anode end.

(A) overall loss of density.

Foreshortening can be caused by
(A) the radiographic object being placed at an angle to the film.
(B) excessive distance between the object and the film.
(C) insufficient distance between the focus and the film.
(D) excessive distance between the focus and the film.

(A) the radiographic object being placed at an angle to the film.

The radiograph in Figure 4-18 exhibits an artifact caused by
(A) an inverted focused grid.
(B) poor screen / film contact.
(C) a foreign body in the image receptor.
(D) static electricity.
(Saia, p 407)

(D) static electricity.

The major function of filtration is to reduce
(A) film noise.
(B) scatter radiation.
(C) operator dose.
(D) patient dose.

(D) patient dose.

The relationship between the intensity of light striking a film and the intensity of light transmitted through the film is an expression of which of the following?
(A) Radiographic contrast
(B) Radiographic density
(C) Recorded detail
(D) Radiographic filtration
(Bushong, p 279)

(B) Radiographic density

[The greater the quantity of black metallic silver deposited on a film, the greater the radiographic density. The greater the degree of radiographic density (degree of blackening), the less the quantity of illuminator light transmitted through the film. ]

the relationship between the amount of illuminator light striking the film and the amount of light transmitted through the film is an expression of radiographic density. It is expressed by the formula.
(Bushong, p 279)

incident light intensity
Density = log(10th)
____________________
transmitted light intensity

Which of the following will influence recorded detail?
1. Screen speed
2. Screen / film contact
3. Focal spot
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

The continued emission of light by a phosphor after the activating source has ceased is termed
(A) fluorescence.
(B) phosphorescence.
(C) image intensification.
(D) quantum mottle.

(B) phosphorescence.

Using a 48-in SID, how much object-image distance (OID) must be introduced to magnify an object two times?
(A) 8 in OID
(B) 12 in OID
(C) 16 in OID
(D) 24 in OID
(Shephard, pp 229-231)
(Selman, pp 223-225)

(D) 24 in OID

[In order to magnify an object to twice its actual size, the part must be placed midway between the focal spot and the film. ]

Image receptors / cassettes frequently have a lead foil layer behind the rear screen that functions to
(A) improve penetration.
(B) absorb backscatter.
(C) preserve resolution.
(D) increase the screen speed.

(B) absorb backscatter.

The exposure factors of 300 mA, 0.017 s, and 72 kVp produce an mAs value of
(A) 5.
(B) 50.
(C) 500.
(D) 5000.
(Shephard, p 170)

(A) 5.

[To calculate mAs, multiply milliamperage times exposure time. In this case, 300 mA × 0.017 s = 5.10 mAs.
Careful attention to proper decimal placement will help avoid basic math errors. ]

What information, located on each box of film, is important to note and has a direct relationship to film quality?
(A) Number of films in the box
(B) Manufacturer's name
(C) Expiration date
(D) Emulsion lot

(C) Expiration date

Which of the following can affect the amount of developer replenisher delivered per film in an automatic processor?
(A) Developer temperature
(B) Amount of film exposure
(C) Film size
(D) Processor capacity

(C) Film size

Which of the following can be used to determine the sensitivity of a particular film emulsion?
(A) Sensitometric curve
(B) Dose-response curve
(C) Reciprocity law
(D) Inverse square law

(A) Sensitometric curve

[The characteristic (sensitometric) curve is used to show the relationship between the exposure given the film and the resulting film density.]

Which of the following factors contribute(s) to the efficient performance of a grid?
1. Grid ratio
2. Number of lead strips per inch
3. Amount of scatter transmitted through the grid
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Slow-speed screens are used
(A) to minimize patient dose.
(B) to keep exposure time to a minimum.
(C) to image fine anatomic details.
(D) in pediatric radiography.

(C) to image fine anatomic details.

Which of the following errors is illustrated in Figure 4-11?
(A) Patient not centered to film
(B) X-ray tube not centered to grid
(C) Inaccurate collimation
(D) Unilateral grid cutoff
[ illustrated radiograph demonstrates a 1½-in unexposed strip along the length of the film.]
(Fauber, p 125)

(B) X-ray tube not centered to grid

The artifacts on the radiograph in Figure 4-20 are called
(A) pi lines.
(B) guide shoe marks.
(C) hesitation marks.
(D) reticulation.
(Shephard, pp 154, 156)

(B) guide shoe marks.

What will result from using single-emulsion film in an image receptor having a two intensifying screens?
(A) Double exposure
(B) Decreased density
(C) Increased recorded detail
(D) Greater latitude

(B) Decreased density

Which of the following is (are) part of the daily recommendations for processor quality control?
1. Sensitometry testing
2. Temperature checks
3. Crossover rack cleaning
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of mammography film emulsion?
1. High contrast
2. Fine grain
3. Single emulsion
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

The squeegee assembly in an automatic processor
1. functions to remove excess solution from films.
2. is located near the crossover rollers.
3. helps establish the film's rate of travel.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 2 only

Factor(s) that can be used to regulate radiographic density is (are)
1. milliamperage.
2. exposure time.
3. kilovoltage.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following is (are) method(s) that would enable the radiographer to reduce the exposure time required for a particular radiograph?
1. Use higher mA.
2. Use higher kVp.
3. Use faster film / screen combination.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

If a 4-in collimated field is changed to a 14-in collimated field, with no other changes, the radiographic image will possess
(A) more density.
(B) less density.
(C) more detail.
(D) less detail.
(Carlton & Adler, p 375)

(A) more density.

[As the quantity of scattered radiation increases from any of these sources, more density is added to the radiographic image. ]

The exposure factors of 300 mA, 0.07 s, and 95 kVp were used to produce a particular radiographic density and contrast. A similar radiograph can be produced using 500 mA, 80 kVp, and
(A) 0.01 s.
(B) 0.04 s.
(C) 0.08 s.
(D) 0.16 s.
(Fauber, pp 55, 59-60)

(C) 0.08 s.

[First, evaluate the change(s): The kVp was decreased by about 15 percent [95 - (0.15 × 95) = 80.7]. A 15 percent decrease in kVp will cut the radiographic density in half; therefore, it is necessary to use twice the original mAs to maintain the original density. The original mAs was 21, and so we now need 42 mAs, using the 500-mA station.Because mA × s = mAs]

500x = 42
x = 0.084 s

Which of the following contribute to the radiographic contrast present on the finished radiograph?
1. Atomic number of tissues radiographed
2. Any pathologic processes
3. Degree of muscle development
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

A film emerging from the automatic processor exhibits excessive density. This may be attributable to which of the following?
1. Developer temperature too high
2. Chemical fog
3. Underreplenishment
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Why are a single intensifying screen and single-emulsion film used for select radiographic examinations?
(A) To decrease patient dose
(B) To achieve longer-scale contrast
(C) For better recorded detail
(D) To decrease fiscal expenses

(C) For better recorded detail

Base-plus fog is a result of
1. blue-tinted film base.
2. chemical development.
3. the manufacturing process.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Most laser film must be handled
(A) under a Wratten 6B safelight.
(B) in total darkness.
(C) under a GBX safelight.
(D) with high-temperature processors.

(B) in total darkness.

The area of blurriness seen in the upper part of the radiograph shown in Figure 4-15 is most likely due to
(A) scatter radiation fog.
(B) patient motion.
(C) poor screen / film contact.
(D) grid cutoff.
(Selman, pp 183-186)

(C) poor screen / film contact.

Compared to a low-ratio grid, a high-ratio grid will
1. absorb more primary radiation.
2. absorb more scattered radiation.
3. allow more centering latitude.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(Fig. 4-27) (Shephard, pp 245, 255)

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following is (are) essential to high-quality mammographic examinations?
1. Small focal spot x-ray tube
2. Long scale of contrast
3. Use of a compression device
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(see Fig. 4-26)(Selman, pp 286-289)

(C) 1 and 3 only

The function(s) of the fixer in film processing is (are) to
1. remove the unexposed silver bromide crystals.
2. change the unexposed silver bromide crystals to black metallic silver.
3. harden the emulsion.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 3 only

If a radiograph exhibits insufficient density, this might be attributed to
1. inadequate kVp.
2. inadequate SID.
3. grid cutoff.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

A radiograph made using 300 mA, 0.1 s, and 75 kVp exhibits motion unsharpness, but otherwise satisfactory technical quality. The radiograph will be repeated using a shorter exposure time. Using 86 kV and 500 mA, what should be the new exposure time?
(A) 0.12 s
(B) 0.06 s
(C) 0.03 s
(D) 0.01 s

(C) 0.03 s

[We have increased the kilovoltage to 86, an increase of 15 percent, which has an effect similar to that of doubling the mAs. Therefore, only 15 mAs is now required as a result of the kV increase:
mA × s = mAs; 500x = 15; x = 0.03 s exposure
]

The mAs formula is

(Selman, p 214)

milliamperage × time = mAs

Which of the following tests is performed to evaluate screen contact?
(A) Spinning top test
(B) Wire mesh test
(C) Penetrometer test
(D) Star pattern test
(Fig. 4-31) Selman, pp 183-186)

(B) Wire mesh test

High-kilovoltage exposure factors are usually required for radiographic examinations using
1. water-soluble, iodinated media.
2. a negative contrast agent.
3. barium sulfate.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

(C) 3 only

The radiograph seen in Figure 4-16 illustrates
(A) high contrast.
(B) light fog.
(C) chemical fog.
(D) double exposure.
[ illustrated shoulder radiograph looks dark and overexposed.]
(Bushong, p 441)

(D) double exposure.

What grid ratio is represented in Figure 4-5?
(A) 3:1
(B) 5:1
(C) 10:1
(D) 16:1
(Bushong, p 234)

(C) 10:1

[Grid ratio is defined as the height of the lead strips compared to (divided by) the width of the interspace material. The width of the lead strips has no bearing on the grid ratio]
Therefore the grid ratio is 5 ÷ 0.5, or a 10:1 grid ratio.

Which of the following is the correct order of radiographic film processing?
(A) Developer, wash, fixer, dry
(B) Fixer, wash, developer, dry
(C) Developer, fixer, wash, dry
(D) Fixer, developer, wash, dry
(Fig. 4-29) Fauber, p 162)
(Shephard, p 134)

(C) Developer, fixer, wash, dry

The steeper the straight-line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the
1. slower the film speed.
2. higher the film contrast.
3. greater the exposure latitude.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 2 only

The radiograph shown in Figure 4-7 is an example of
(A) linear tomography.
(B) computed tomography (CT).
(C) grid cutoff.
(D) poor screen / film contact.
[Figure 4-7] Ballinger & Frank, vol 3, pp 185-188)

(A) linear tomography.

Conditions contributing to poor radiographic film archival quality include
1. fixer retention.
2. insufficient developer replenishment.
3. poor storage conditions.
(A) 1 only
(B) 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following groups of technical factors would be most appropriate for the radiographic examination shown in Figure 4-24?
(A) 400 mA, 1/30 s, 72 kVp
(B) 300 mA, 1/50 s, 82 kVp
(C) 300 mA, 1/120 s, 94 kVp
(D) 50 mA, 1/4 s, 72 kVp
(Saia, p 347)

(A) 400 mA, 1/30 s, 72 kVp

An increase in kilovoltage will serve to
(A) produce a longer scale of contrast.
(B) produce a shorter scale of contrast.
(C) decrease the radiographic density.
(D) decrease the production of scatter radiation.

(A) produce a longer scale of contrast.

All of the following affect the exposure rate of the primary beam except
(A) mA.
(B) kVp.
(C) distance.
(D) field size.

(D) field size.

Which of the following conditions would require an increase in exposure factors?
1. Congestive heart failure
2. Pleural effusion
3. Emphysema
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

An AP radiograph of the hip was made using 400 mA, 0.05 s, 76 kVp, 40-in SID, 1.2-mm focal spot, and a 400-speed film / screen system. With all other factors remaining constant, which of the following exposure times would be required in order to maintain radiographic density using 400 mA and a 200-speed film / screen system, and with the addition of an 8:1grid?
(A) 0.12 s
(B) 0.18 s
(C) 0.4 s
(D) 0.6 s
(Fauber, pp 62, 148)

(C) 0.4 s
If the imaging system speed is cut in half (from 400 to 200 speed), the result will be half of the original density on the radiograph. Therefore, to maintain the original density, the mAs must be doubled from the original 20 to 40 mAs. Grids are used to absorb scatter radiation from the remnant beam before it can contribute to the latent image. Because the grid removes scatter (and some primary) radiation from the beam, an increase in exposure factors is required. The amount of increase is dependent on the grid ratio: The higher the grid ratio, the higher the correction factor. The correction factor for an 8:1 grid is 4; therefore, the mAs (40) is multiplied by 4 to arrive at the new required mAs (160). Usingthe mAs equation mA × s = mAs, it is determined that 0.4 s will be required at 400 mA:

400x = 160
x = 0.4 s

The number of x-ray photons delivered to the patient in a given exposure is primarily regulated by
(A) mAs.
(B) kVp.
(C) SID.
(D) focal spot size.

(A) mAs.

A focal spot size of 0.3 mm or smaller is essential for
(A) small-bone radiography.
(B) magnification radiography.
(C) tomography.
(D) fluoroscopy.

(B) magnification radiography.

The plus-density artifact pictured in Figure 4-14 was probably produced
1. by careless handling.
2. after exposure.
3. before exposure.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1 and 3 only
(Saia, pp 378, 406)

(D) 1 and 3 only

[The crescent-shaped kink, or crinkle, marks seen on the radiographic image are caused by acutely bending the x-ray film. ]

Boxes of film stored in too warm an area may be subject to
(A) static marks.
(B) film fog.
(C) high contrast.
(D) loss of density.

(B) film fog.

Methods that help reduce the production of scattered radiation include using
1. compression.
2. beam restriction.
3. a grid.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 and 2 only

X-ray film emulsion is most sensitive to safelight fog
(A) before exposure and development.
(B) after exposure.
(C) during development.
(D) at low humidity.

(B) after exposure.

When an automatic processor is started up at the beginning of the day, or restarted after an extended standby period, the technologist should process an
(A) unexposed, undeveloped 14 × 17-in film.
(B) exposed and developed 14 × 17-in film.
(C) unexposed and developed 14 × 17-in film.
(D) unexposed or unexposed and developed 14 × 17-in film.

(A) unexposed, undeveloped 14 × 17-in film.

Unopened boxes of radiographic film should be stored away from radiation and
(A) in the horizontal position.
(B) in the vertical position.
(C) stacked with the oldest on top.
(D) stacked with the newest on top.

(B) in the vertical position.

Exposed silver halide crystals are changed to black metallic silver by the
(A) preservative.
(B) reducers.
(C) activators.
(D) hardener.

(B) reducers.

The exposure factors used for a particular nongrid radiograph were 400 mA, 0.02 s, and 90 kVp. Another radiograph using an 8:1 grid is requested. Which of the following groups of factors is most appropriate?
(A) 400 mA, 0.02 s, 110 kVp
(B) 200 mA, 0.08 s, 90 kVp
(C) 300 mA, 0.05 s, 100 kVp
(D) 400 mA, 0.08 s, 90 kVp
(Saia, p 328)

(D) 400 mA, 0.08 s, 90 kVp

[The addition of a grid will help clean up the scatter radiation produced by higher kVp, but it requires an mAs adjustment. According to the grid conversion factors listed here, the addition of an 8:1 grid requires that the original mAs be multiplied by a factor of 4:

No grid = 1 × the original mAs
5:1 grid = 2 × the original mAs
6:1 grid = 3 × the original mAs
8:1 grid = 4 × the original mAs
12:1 (or 10:1) grid = 5 × the original mAs
16:1 grid = 6 × the original mAs

The adjustment therefore requires 32 mAs at 90 kVp.]

The conversion of the invisible latent image into a visible manifest image takes place in the
(A) developer.
(B) stop bath.
(C) first half of the fixer process.
(D) second half of the fixer process.

(A) developer.

A change from 100-speed screens to 200-speed screens would require what change in mAs?
(A) mAs should be increased by 15 percent.
(B) mAs should be increased by 30 percent.
(C) mAs should be doubled.
(D) mAs should be halved.
Shephard, pp 67-68)

(D) mAs should be halved.

[As screen speed is increased, exposure factors must be decreased in order to maintain the original film density.]

A particular mAs, regardless of the combination of mA and time, will reproduce the same radiographic density. This is a statement of the
(A) line focus principle.
(B) inverse square law.
(C) reciprocity law.
(D) law of conservation of energy.

(C) reciprocity law.

How can the radiograph in Figure 4-22 be improved?
1. Decrease mAs.
2. Eliminate motion.
3. Lengthen the scale of contrast.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
Carlton & Adler, pp 367-369)

(C) 1 and 3 only

[This radiograph should be repeated at a lower mAs and appropriately higher kVp.]

The term spectral matching refers to the fact that film sensitivity must be matched with the
(A) proper color screen fluorescence.
(B) correct kVp level.
(C) correct mA level.
(D) proper developer concentration.

(A) proper color screen fluorescence.

What is added to the developer to prevent excessive softening of the emulsion and its sticking to processor rollers?
(A) Hydroquinone
(B) Glutaraldehyde
(C) Ammonium thiosulfate
(D) Potassium bromide

(B) Glutaraldehyde

If the quantity of black metallic silver on a particular radiograph is such that it allows 1 percent of the illuminator light to pass through the film, that film has a density of
(A) 0.01.
(B) 0.1.
(C) 1.0.
(D) 2.0.
(Shephard, p 102)

(D) 2.0.

If a film is placed on an illuminator and 100 percent of the illuminator's light is transmitted through the film, that film must have a density of 0. According to the equation

incident light intensity
Density = log10 _____________________
transmitted light intensoty

if 10 percent of the illuminator's light passes through the film, that film has a density of 1. If 1 percent of the light passes through the film, that film has a density of 2.

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the artifact seen in the erect PA projection of the chest shown in Figure 4-25?
(A) The object is located within the patient.
(B) The object is located within the image receptor.
(C) The object is located between the patient and the x-ray tube.
(D) The object is located between the patient and the image receptor.
(Saia, p 378)

(B) The object is located within the image receptor.

A satisfactory radiograph was made using a 40-in SID, 10 mAs, and a 12:1 grid. If the exam will be repeated at a distance of 48 in and using an 8:1 grid, what should be the new mAs in order to maintain the original density?
(A) 5.6 mAs
(B) 8.8 mAs
(C) 11.5 mAs
(D) 14.4 mAs
(Selman, pp 214, 243)

(C) 11.5 mAs

According to the density maintenance formula, if the SID is changed to 48 in, 14.4 mAs is required in order to maintain the original radiographic density.

(old mAs) 10 (old D2) 402 10 1600
¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾; ¾ = ¾¾
(new mAs) x (new D2) 482 x 2304

1600x = 23,040; x = 14.4 mAs at 48 SID

Then, to compensate for changing from a 12:1 grid to an 8:1 grid, the mAs becomes 11.5:

(old mAs) 14.4 (old grid factor) 5
¾¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾¾¾
(new mAs) x (new grid factor) 4

5x = 57.6
x = 11.5 mAs with 8:1 grid at 48 in SID

Thus, 11.5 mAs is required to produce a film density similar to that of the original radiograph. The following are the factors used for mAs conversion from nongrid to grid:

No grid = 1 × the original mAs
5:1 grid = 2 × the original mAs
6:1 grid = 3 × the original mAs
8:1 grid = 4 × the original mAs
12:1 grid = 5 × the original mAs
16:1 grid = 6 × the original mAs

Factors that contribute to film fog include
1. the age of the film.
2. excessive exposure to safelight.
3. processor chemistry.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

X-ray photon beam attenuation is influenced by
1. tissue type.
2. subject thickness.
3. photon quality.
(A) 1 only
(B) 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the two characteristic curves shown in Figure 4-13 will require more exposure to produce a density of 1.5 on the finished radiograph?
(A) Film 1.
(B) Film 2.
(C) They require identical exposures.
(D) Insufficient information is provided.
(Selman, p 221)

(A) Film 1.
[Locate density 1.5 on the vertical axis. Follow it across to where it intersects with film 1, then to where it intersects with film 2. At each intersection, follow the vertical line down and note the corresponding log relative exposure. Film 1 requires an exposure of about 1.6 to record a density of 1.5,]

[The faster film always occupies the position farthest to the left in a comparison of two or more films.]

Film base is currently made of which of the following materials?
(A) Cellulose nitrate
(B) Cellulose acetate
(C) Polyester
(D) Glass

(C) Polyester

Disadvantage(s) of using low-kV technical factors include
1. insufficient penetration.
2. increased patient dose.
3. diminished latitude.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

What is the purpose of the thin layer of lead that is often located behind the rear intensifying screen in a image receptor?
(A) To prevent crossover
(B) To increase screen speed
(C) To diffuse light photons
(D) To prevent scattered radiation fog

(D) To prevent scattered radiation fog

Which of the following may be used to reduce the effect of scattered radiation on the finished radiograph?
1. Grids
2. Collimators
3. Compression bands
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

The reduction in x-ray photon intensity as the photon passes through material is termed
(A) absorption.
(B) scattering.
(C) attenuation.
(D) divergence.

(C) attenuation.

Use of high-ratio grids is associated with
1. increased patient dose.
2. higher contrast.
3. pediatric radiography.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

The line focus principle expresses the relationship between
(A) the actual and the effective focal spot.
(B) exposure given the film and resultant density.
(C) SID used and resultant density.
(D) grid ratio and lines per inch.

(A) the actual and the effective focal spot.

Which of the following can result from improper film storage or darkroom conditions?
1. Safelight fog
2. Background radiation fog
3. Screen lag
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

With all other factors constant, as a digital image matrix size increases,
1. pixel size decreases.
2. resolution increases.
3. pixel size increases.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

(C) 1 and 2 only

Screen / film imaging is one example of a(n)
(A) analog system.
(B) digital system.
(C) electromagnetic system.
(D) direct-action radiation system.

(A) analog system.

Which of the two film emulsions illustrated in Figure 4-8 requires less exposure to produce a density of 2.0?
(A) Number 1 requires less exposure to produce a density of 2.0.
(B) Number 2 requires less exposure to produce a density of 2.0.
(C) Emulsions 1 and 2 are of identical speed.
(D) Speed cannot be predicted from the illustration.
Selman, p 221)

(A) Number 1 requires less exposure to produce a density of 2.0.

[A line is drawn vertically fromeach curve at a density of 2.0 to where it intersects with the horizontal axis (exposure). Film 1 requires an exposure of about 1.7 to produce a density of 2.0. ]

Using a short (25-30-in) SID with a large-size (14 × 17-in) image receptor is likely to
(A) increase the scale of contrast.
(B) increase the anode heel effect.
(C) cause malfunction of the AEC.
(D) cause premature termination of the exposure.

B) increase the anode heel effect.

Which of the following will contribute to the production of longer-scale radiographic contrast?
1. An increase in kV
2. An increase in grid ratio
3. An increase in photon energy
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

The developer temperature in a 90-s automatic processor is usually about
(A) 75 to 80ºF.
(B) 80 to 85ºF.
(C) 85 to 90ºF.
(D) 90 to 95ºF.

(D) 90 to 95ºF.

Which of the following groups of exposure factors will produce the greatest radiographic density?
(A) 100 mA, 0.30 s
(B) 200 mA, 0.10 s
(C) 400 mA, 0.03 s
(D) 600 mA, 0.03 s

(A) 100 mA, 0.30 s

The absorption of useful radiation by a grid is called
(A) grid selectivity.
(B) contrast improvement factor.
(C) grid cutoff.
(D) latitude.

(C) grid cutoff.

ll of the following statements regarding CR (computed radiography) cassettes are true, except
(A) CR cassettes do not contain radiographic film
(B) CR cassettes use no intensifying screens
(C) CR cassettes must exclude all white light
(D) CR cassettes function to protect the IP (image plate)

(C) CR cassettes must exclude all white light

Which combination of exposure factors will most likely contribute to producing the longest-scale contrast?
Film / Screen Grid Field
mAs kVp System Ratio Size
(A) 10 70 400 5:1 14 × 17 in
(B) 12 90 200 8:1 14 × 17 in
(C) 15 90 200 12:1 8 × 10 in
(D) 20 80 400 10:1 11 × 14 in
(Shephard, pp 306-308)

(B) 12 90 200 8:1 14 × 17 in

How is SID related to exposure rate and radiographic density?
(A) As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density increases.
(B) As SID increases, exposure rate increases and radiographic density decreases.
(C) As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density increases.
(D) As SID increases, exposure rate decreases and radiographic density decreases
Selman, p 117)
(Shephard, pp 306-308)

?? was in w/123 ??

Which of the following statements is true with respect to the diagram in Figure 4-19?
(A) Film 2 has more sensitivity above the point of intersection.
(B) Film 1 has more sensitivity below the point of intersection.
(C) Film 1 has more sensitivity above the point of intersection.
(D) Film 2 has less sensitivity below the point of intersection.

(C) Film 1 has more sensitivity above the point of intersection.
[The answer to this question conforms to the general rule that when two or more characteristiccurves are being compared, the fastest film emulsion is the one furthest to the left. The one difference is that there are intersecting characteristic curves here. Simply see which curve is farther to the left above the intersection]
**** #2 As you can see, film 1 has more sensitivity (speed) above the point of intersection.

Of the following groups of technical factors, which will produce the greatest radiographic density?
(A) 10 mAs, 74 kVp, 44-in SID
(B) 10 mAs, 74 kVp, 36-in SID
(C) 5 mAs, 85 kVp, 48-in SID
(D) 5 mAs, 85 kVp, 40-in SID
(Shephard, pp 306-307)

(B) 10 mAs, 74 kVp, 36-in SID

[f A and B are reduced to 5 mAs for mAs consistency, the kVp will increase to 85 kVp in both cases, thereby balancing radiographic densities. Thus, the greatest density is determined by the shortest SID (greatest exposure rate). ]

Greater latitude is available to the radiographer in which of the following circumstances?
1. Using high-kVp technical factors
2. Using a slow film / screen combination
3. Using a low-ratio grid
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following radiographic accessories functions to produce uniform density on a radiograph?
(A) Grid
(B) Intensifying screens
(C) Compensating filter
(D) Penetrometer

(C) Compensating filter

Which of the following is (are) causes of grid cutoff when using reciprocating grids?
1. Inadequate SID
2. X-ray tube off-center with the long axis of the lead strips
3. Angling the beam in the direction of the lead strips
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 only

The relationship between the height of a grid's lead strips and the distance between them is referred to as grid
(A) ratio.
(B) radius.
(C) frequency.
(D) focusing distance.

(A) ratio.

What combination of exposure factors and image receptor speed would best function to reduce quantum mottle?
(A) Decreased mAs, decreased kVp, fast-speed screens
(B) Increased mAs, decreased kVp, slow-speed screens
(C) Decreased mAs, increased kVp, fast-speed screens
(D) Increased mAs, increased kVp, fast-speed screens

(B) Increased mAs, decreased kVp, slow-speed screens

Focal spot blur is greatest
(A) directly along the course of the central ray.
(B) toward the cathode end of the x-ray beam.
(C) toward the anode end of the x-ray beam.
(D) as the SID is increased.

(B) toward the cathode end of the x-ray beam.

Why is a very short exposure time essential in chest radiography?
(A) To avoid excessive focal spot blur
(B) To maintain short-scale contrast
(C) To minimize involuntary motion
(D) To minimize patient discomfort

(C) To minimize involuntary motion

Misalignment of the tube-part-film relationship results in
(A) shape distortion.
(B) size distortion.
(C) magnification.
(D) blur.

(A) shape distortion.

A 3-in object to be radiographed at a 36-in SID lies 4 in from the image recorder. What will be the image width?
(A) 2.6 in
(B) 3.3 in
(C) 26 in
(D) 33 in
(Bushong, p 265)

(B) 3.3 in

Image size SID
____________ = ________
Object Size SOD

Substituting known values:

x 36 in SID
¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾
3 in 32 in SOD (SOD = SID minus OID)

32x = 108; x = 3.37 in image width

A lateral radiograph of the cervical spine was made at 40 in using 100 mA and 0.1 s exposure. If it is desired to increase the distance to 72 in, what should be the new mA, all other factors remaining the same?
(A) 100 mA
(B) 200 mA
(C) 300 mA
(D) 400 mA

(C) 300 mA

The formula used to determine the new mAs (density maintenance formula) is

(old mAs) 10 (old D2) 402 10 1600
¾¾¾¾¾¾ = ¾¾¾¾¾¾; ¾ = ¾¾
(new mAs) x (new D2) 722 x 5184

1600x = 51,840; x = 32.4 mAs at 72 SID

To determine the required mA (mA × s = mAs),

0.1x = 32.4
x = 324 mA

If a lateral projection of the chest is being performed on an asthenic patient and the outer photocells are selected, what is likely to be the outcome?
(A) Decreased density
(B) Increased density
(C) Scattered radiation fog
(D) Motion blur

(A) Decreased density

An unexposed and processed film will have a density of about
(A) zero.
(B) 0.1.
(C) 1.0.
(D) 2.5.

(B) 0.1.

What effect will a stained intensifying screen have on the finished radiograph?
(A) Blurring
(B) Magnification
(C) Decreased density
(D) Increased density

(C) Decreased density

Recorded detail can be improved by decreasing
1. the SID.
2. the OID.
3. motion unsharpness.
(A) 1 only
(B) 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

The left and right oblique cervical spine radiographs seen in Figure 4-3 were performed using automatic exposure control (AEC) during a particular examination. Which of the following is most likely to account for the difference in radiographic density between the images?
(A) Focused grid placed upside down
(B) Incorrect photocell selected
(C) Incorrect positioning of the part being imaged
(D) Patient motion during exposure
(Carlton & Adler, pp 505-506)

(C) Incorrect positioning of the part being imaged

If 40 mAs and a 50-speed screen / film system were used for a particular exposure, what new mAs value would be required in order to produce the same density if the screen / film system were changed to 200-speed?
(A) 10 mAs
(B) 20 mAs
(C) 80 mAs
(D) 160 mAs
(Saia, p 327)

(A) 10 mAs

mAs conversion factors and the following formula may be used:

screen speed factor 1 mAs1 2 40
__________________ =______;____=___
screen speed factor 2 mAs2 0.5 x

2x = 20; x = 10 mA with 200 screen / film system

Which of the following has the greatest effect on radiographic density?
(A) Aluminum filtration
(B) Kilovoltage
(C) SID
(D) Scattered radiation

(C) SID

Which of the following affect(s) both the quantity and the quality of the primary beam?
1. Half-value layer (HVL)
2. kVp
3. mA
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following have an effect on recorded detail?
1. Focal spot size
2. Type of rectification
3. SID
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 3 only

Types of shape distortion include
1. magnification.
2. elongation.
3. foreshortening.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

An exposure was made using 12 mAs and 60 kVp. If the kVp was changed to 70 in order to obtain longer-scale contrast, what should be the new mAs?
(A) 3 mAs
(B) 6 mAs
(C) 18 mAs
(D) 24 mAs
(Saia, p 320)

(B) 6 mAs

[According to the 15 percent rule, if the kVp is increased by 15 percent, radiographic density will be doubled. Therefore, to compensate for this change and to maintain radiographic density, the mAs should be reduced to 6 mAs. ]

Which of the following terms refers to light being reflected from one intensifying screen, through the film, to the opposite emulsion and screen?
(A) Reflectance
(B) Crossover
(C) Scatter
(D) Filtration

(B) Crossover

Decreasing field size from 14 × 17 in to 8 × 10 in will
(A) decrease radiographic density and decrease the amount of scatter radiation generated within the part.
(B) decrease radiographic density and increase the amount of scatter radiation generated within the part.
(C) increase radiographic density and increase the amount of scatter radiation generated within the part.
(D) increase radiographic density and decrease the amount of scatter radiation generated within the part.
(Shephard, p 203)

(A) decrease radiographic density and decrease the amount of scatter radiation generated within the part.

If a radiograph exposed using a 12:1 ratio grid exhibits a loss of density at its lateral edges, it is probably because the
(A) SID was too great.
(B) grid failed to move during the exposure.
(C) x-ray tube was angled in the direction of the lead strips.
(D) central ray was off-center.

(A) SID was too great.

What apparatus is needed for the construction of a sensitometric curve?
1. Penetrometer
2. Densitometer
3. Electrolytic canister
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(Fig. 4-32) (Bushong, p 256)

(A) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following are methods used for silver reclamation?
1. Photoelectric method
2. Metallic replacement method
3. Electrolytic method
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

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