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John Pershing

US General who searched for Pancho Villa

Kaiser Wilhelm II

was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.

Charles Evans Hughes

Secretary of State under Harding, Proposed a 10-year moratorium on the construction of major new warships at the Washington Conference

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, which started World War I

Czar Nicholas II

Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)

Gavril Princip

Serbian nationalist who killed Archduke Ferdinand

Marshal Foch

French supreme commander of Allied forces

Douglas Haig

commander general of Brits. committed to pushing German army out of France.

Otto von Bismark

Prussian leader of German unification/nationalism movement

Morocco Crises

1911 - After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.

Reinsurance Treaty

treaty between bismarck and russia in 1887 so germany wouldn't have a 2 front war. wilhelm fired bismarck, removed treaty, russia allied with france

Sarajevo

Location where the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of the Austrian Empire was assassinated

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

Triple Entente

Russia, France, Great Britain

Lusitania

American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

U-boat

a German submarine that was the first submarine employed in warfare, initially used during WW1

Arabic and Sussex

2 other ships sunk by Germans w/o warning

George Creel

Propagandist in charge of Committee of Public Information

Eugene Debs

ran for president again

Bernard Baruch

Head of the War Industries Board, which attempted to impose some order on the U.S. war production

Herbert Hoover

31st President of the United States

Alice Paul

A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

Warren G. Harding

president after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism

James Cox

Democratic candidate who, along with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt, helped to keep the ideals of Wilson alive

Paul von Hindenburg

President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933

Erich Ludendorff

This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war

Josef Stalin

Leader of communist Russia as dictator

Vladimir Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)

Leon Trotsky

Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army

Karl Marx

German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894). (p. 709)

Alexander Kerensky

Leader of Provincial Government installed in Russia following the March 1917 Revolution; overthrown by Bolsheviks

collective security

the principle of mutual military assistance among nations

conscription

military draft

Zimmerman note

Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico

Fourteen Points

Wilson's document meant to prevent international problems from causing another war

League of Nations

An organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace among nations

Committee on Public Information

rallied American's war efforts through propaganda

Espionage Act

1917, outlawed treason (opposing draft, criticizing government, flag, or military)

Schenck v United States

Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech

Industrial Workers of the World

an international industrial labor union, considered radical by many, organized in Chicago

War Industries Board

Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc.

18th Amendment

prohibition

19th Amendment

women's suffrage

Bolsheviks

Russian communist party who controlled Russia by the end of 1917

Big Four

Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (french premier), David Lloyd George (british prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (italian prime minister)

irreconcilables

Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations

Food Administration

Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

Weimar Republic

The german government from 1917-1933 overthrown by Nazis

Menshevik

Right-wing or moderate Marxists willing to cooperate with the bourgeoisie. (minority men)

proletariat

the industrial working class

bourgeoisie

educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution

feudalism

system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners

socialism

an economic system based on state ownership of capital

capitalism

an economic system based on private property and free enterprise

communism

a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership

A. Mitchell Palmer

attorney general who authorized anti-radical raids and deportations

Randolph Bourne

critic on immigration - cosmopolitanism - cross fertilization of immigrants

Al Capone

United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)

John T Scopes

Biology teacher who voluntarly tought evolution and got arrested

William Jennings Bryan

Lawyer for the state of TN in the "Monkey Trial"

Clarence Darrow

Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools

Andrew Mellon

secratary of tresury 1921-33, beleived that the depression should run its course and that natural market forces would restore to full employment

Henry Ford

United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)

Frederick W Taylor

father of scientific management

Charles Lindbergh

United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)

Margaret Sanger

United States nurse who campaigned for birth control and planned parenthood

SIgmund Freud

austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis

HL Mencken

one of the most important authors in american literature, not afraid to express his anti semitism

F Scott Fitzgerald

Great Gatsby

John Dewey

United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952)

Ernest Hemingway

One of the most popular writers of the 1920's who wrote "A Farewell to Arms"

Sinclair Lewis

American novelist who attacked American society with irony- First American to win a Nobel Prize for Literature

Marcus Garvey

founds universal negro improvement association (UNIA); believed in separation of the races and started the "back to africa" movement

TS Eliot

wrote "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," "The Waste Land" and "The Hollow Men;" British WWI poet, playwright, and literary critic

Babe Ruth

United States professional baseball player famous for hitting home runs (1895-1948)

Charlie Chaplin

English comedian and film maker; portrayed a downtrodden little man in baggy pants and bowler hat

Clara Bow

Silent film Hollywood "it girl", flapper, sex symbol

Mary Pickford

United States film actress (born in Canada) who starred in silent films (1893-1979)

Rudolph Valentino

The most popular movie actor of the 1920's

nativist

a person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants

cultural pluralism

a condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and maintain their cultural differences

progressive education

John Dewey led movement that focused on personal growth, not mastery of body of knowledge and learning through experience

buying on margin

buying stock by paying only a portion of the full cost up-front with promises to pay the rest later

Red Scare

a period of general fear of communists

Sacco Vanzetti

two italian immagrants accused of anarchism and put to death

The Birth of a Nation

One of the first classic full-length "moving-pictures," it glorified the KKK and defamed blacks and carpetbaggers.

Emergency Quota Act

1921 Act that stipulates only 3% of 1910 immigrants are allowed in

Immigration Quota Act

immigration, 2% of the people of their nationality who had been living in the U.S. in 1890. Southern Europeans were at a disadvantage

National Origins Act of 1924

Excluded Asians from being able to immigrate into US. Decreased the 1921 quota from 3% to 2%.

Volstead Act

the means of enforcing Prohibition

Fundamentalism

the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth

modernists

This group of people supported Darwinism and they refused to accept the bible as history or science

UNIA

Universal Negro Improvement Association

flappers

Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion

bootlegging

illegal production/ selling/ distribution of alcohol

general strike

strike by workers in many different industries at the same time

installment buying

a system for paying for goods by installments

Model T

first affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black

real wages

actual purchasing power of income

speakeasies

Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally

speculation

buying land or anything else in the hope of profiting by an expected rise in price

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