Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or
attitudes that results in improved performance in another environment.
A relatively permanent change in behavior and human capabilities produced by experience and practice.
Type of learning outcome that includes declarative knowledge, or knowledge of rules, facts, and principles.
Type of learning outcome that concerns the development of motor or technical
Type of learning outcome that includes attitudes or beliefs that predispose a person to behave in a certain way.2
Actions or behaviors relevant to the organization's goals and measured in terms of each individual's proficiency.
training needs analysis
A three-step process of organizational, task, and person analysis; required to develop a systematic understanding of where training is needed, what needs to be taught or trained, and who will be trained.
Component of training needs analysis that examines organizational goals, available resources, and the organizational environment; helps to determine where training should be directed.
Component of training needs analysis that examines what employees must do to perform the job properly.
Sets of behaviors, usually learned by experience, that are instrumental in the accomplishment of desired organizational results or outcomes.
Component of training needs analysis that identifies which individuals within an organization should receive training and what kind of instruction they need.
Refers to whether employees have the personal characteristics necessary to acquire knowledge from a training program and apply it to the job.
Orientation in which individuals are concerned about doing well in training and being evaluated positively.
Orientation in which individuals are concerned with increasing their competence for the task at hand; they view errors and mistakes as part of the learning process.
Extent to which trainees are interested in attending training, learning from training, and transferring the skills and knowledge acquired in training back to the job.
Approach in which employees' expectations about the relationship between how much effort they expend and how well they perform are important to their motivation and learning.
Occurs when desired behavior is followed by a reward, which increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
A training and motivational method based primarily on reinforcement theory; involves identifying, measuring, rewarding, and evaluating employee behaviors aimed at performance improvement.
social learning theory
Cognitive theory that proposes that there are many ways to learn including observational learning, which occurs when people watch someone perform a task and then rehearse those activities mentally until they have an opportunity to try them out.
Learning approach that consists of observing actual job incumbents (or videos of job incumbents) who demonstrate positive modeling behaviors, rehearsing the behavior using a role-playing technique, receiving feedback on the rehearsal, and trying out the behavior on the job.
The belief in one's capability to perform a specific task or reach a specific goal.
Motivational approach in which specific, difficult goals direct attention and improve performance in training and on the job.
Knowledge of the results of one's actions; enhances learning and performance in training and on the job.
Involves actively participating in a training or work task rather than passively observing someone else performing the task.
Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention; likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities after they have demonstrated mastery of a task.
Extent to which the task trained is similar to the task required on the job.
Extent to which the training task mirrors the physical features of the task performed on the job.
Extent to which the training task helps trainees to develop the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) necessary to perform the job.
Training approach in which the entire task is practiced at once.
Training approach in which subtasks are practiced separately and later combined.
Conditions in which individuals practice a task continuously and without rest.
Provides individuals with rest intervals between practice sessions, which are spaced over a longer period of time.
Company that emphasizes continuous learning, knowledge sharing, and personal mastery.
Involves assigning trainees to jobs and encouraging them to observe and learn from more experienced employees.
Formal program used to teach a skilled trade.
Approach that involves moving employees to various departments or areas of a company, or to various jobs within a single department.
Training method in which the trainer communicates through spoken words and audiovisual materials what trainees are supposed to learn; also commonly used to efficiently present a large amount of information to a large number of trainees.
Approach in which trainees are given instructional materials in written or computer- based forms that positively reinforce them as they move through the material at their own pace.
Type of programmed instruction in which all trainees proceed through the same material.
Type of programmed instruction that provides a customized approach enabling each learner to practice material he or she had difficulty with when it was first presented.
Teaching tool designed to reproduce the critical characteristics of the real world in a training setting that produces learning and transfer to the job.
Approach that allows trainees to interact and communicate with an instructor by using audio and video (television, computer, or radio) links that allow for learning from a distant location.
Includes text, graphics, and/or animation presented via computer for the express purpose of teaching job-relevant knowledge and skills.
instructional approach that provides trainees with information that helps them interpret their past performance and also determine what they should be studying and practicing to improve their future performance.
critical thinking skills
Require active involvement in applying the principles under discussion.
transfer of training
Degree to which trainees apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in training to their jobs.
transfer of training climate
Workplace characteristics that either inhibit or facilitate the transfer to the job of what has been learned in training.
Transfer across different settings or contexts at the same level of the organization.
Transfer across different levels of the organization; concerned with the link between individual training outcomes and outcomes at higher levels of the organization such as teams and departments.
Reinforcement: Theory that proposes that behavior
depends on three simple elements: stimulus, response, and reward. Proposed that if a response in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarded, that response is likely to occur again in the presence of that stimulus.???in 7.2??
Measures of trainee impressions of the training program.
Measures that assess how much was learned in the training program.
Measures of how well the behaviors learned in training transfer to the job.
Measures of how well training can be related to organizational outcomes such as productivity gains, cost savings, error reductions, or increased customer satisfaction.
Assess trainee reactions to and learning in the training program; generally assessed before trainees leave the training program.
Assess whether changes as a result of training occur when trainees are back on the job.
Technique that assesses the economic return on investment of human resource interventions such as staffing or training.
pretest posttest control group design
Generally includes random assignment of participants to conditions, a control group, and measures obtained both before and after training has occurred.
Solomon four-group design
A rigorous evaluation design that includes random assignment of participants to four groups, pretests for training and control groups, and posttests for all four groups.
Formal education, job experiences, mentoring relationships, and assessments of personality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.
Collection of procedures for evaluation that is administered to groups of individuals; assessments are typically performed by multiple assessors.
360 degree feedback
Process of collecting and providing a manager or executive with feedback from many sources, including supervisors, peers, subordinates, customers, and suppliers.
A practical, goal-focused form of personal, one-on-one learning for busy employees that may be used to improve performance, enhance a career, or work through organizational issues or change initiatives.
Training experiences that occur outside of formal training programs. Can include specific job assignments, experiences, and activities outside of work.
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance, or creates a hostile work environment.
quid pro quo sexual harassment
Involves direct requests for sexual favors, for example, when sexual compliance is mandatory for promotions or retaining one's job.
hostile working environment sexual harassment
Occurs when a pattern of conduct, which is perceived as offensive and is related to sex or gender, unreasonably interferes with work performance.
Manager or professional assigned to work in a location outside of his or her home country.
Condition typically experienced four to six months after expatriates arrive in a foreign country; symptoms include homesickness, irritability, hostility toward host nationals, and inability to work effectively.
Designed to prepare individuals from one culture to interact more effectively with individuals from different cultures; goal is to develop understanding of basic differences in values and communication styles.
Written or computer-based tool for individual use which presents a collection of scenarios describing challenging, cross-cultural critical incidents.
Assimilator developed for a particular culture.
Used to sensitize people to cross-cultural differences they may encounter across a wide variety of cultures.