alternating humor and pathos, song and dialogue, tense and tranquil scenes.
lines having one meaning for the audience and another for the character to whom they are spoken.
the feeling of not knowing for sure what will happen, but anticipating it.
unexpected twist or turn.
character speaking to the world in general with no other characters in the scene.
character speaking confidentially to the audience (often humorously) as if other characters cannot hear what is said.
props to change the appearance of the character to fool other characters in the play.
an incident introduced just before the climax to mislead the audience.
letting the villain be punished and the hero reap reward.