Pope Urban II
pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
renaissance artist, inventor and scientist who created Mona Lisa
Italian Renaissance artist/sculptor who painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling and sculpted the statue of David.
a statesman of Florence who wrote The Prince and who advocated a strong central government
English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
German monk who opposed selling indulgences and posted the 95 Thesis, which led to the Reformation
religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
Inventor of the printing press
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
a former tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church (1232-1820) created to discover and suppress heresy
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
the quality of being individual
Individual characters made of wood or metal that can be arranged to create a job for printing and then used over again
pardon sold by Catholic Church to reduce one's punishment
Catholic Counter Reformation
The Catholic Religion's reformation in response to the Protestant Reformation.
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
The beliefs of Christians who opposed, or protested against, the Roman Catholic Church
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
willingness to let others practice their own beliefs
the revival of learning and culture; especially Greek and Roman; marks beginning modern times
salvation by faith
Luther's doctrine that salvation is achieved by faith alone
The emphasis on the here and-now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly.
the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church and posted on the door of the church at Wittenberg