Basic Brain Vocabulary

27 terms by csaluki762 

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Medulla Oblongota

The part of the brain that regulates basic functions like heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, sneezing. Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Autonomic reflex center for maintaining body homeostatis; adjusts force and rate of heart contraction, adjusts blood vessel diameter for bp, generate respiratory rhythm, rate and depth of breathing (w/pons), regulate vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing.

Optic Chiasm

The part of the brain where the optic nerves cross., the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain

Frontal Lobe

The lobe of the cortex that allows us to plan, create abstract thought, and contains much of our personality. Controls most voluntary movement and contains the Precentral gyrus., associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving, part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goal-directed behavior, and appropriate emotional experiences

Brainstem

Structure that controls basic life functions and includes the medulla, pons, and midbrain., The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

Postcentral gyrus

The part of the brain that processes touch sensation and is part of the parietal lobe. Also called the somatosensory cortex.

Cerebellum

the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
Coordinates eye movements and balance.
Helps us to perform and modulate voluntary motor skills., part of the brain that coordinates balance, movement, reflexes,

Hypothalamus

Part of the brain involved with regulating many aspects of our emotional lives such as anger, sex, thirst, hunger, regulates body temperature, a homeostatic control center, it controls the pituitary gland and serves as a biological clock.

Parietal lobe

This lobe is important for integrating senses, processing visual-spatial information and for speech and number recognition.
Contains the post-central gyrus which detects and locates all touch sensations on our body.

Precentral gyrus

Portion of the frontal lobe that is the starting point for all voluntary movements.

Occipital lobe

The lobe at the back of the brain and contains the major processing and interpreting areas for our vision.

Pons

Helps to maintain posture and is also involved in sensory analysis of hearing input.
It is also important for sleep patterns and levels of consciousness.
Connects the cerebellum to the cerbral cortex.

Temporal lobe

The lobe responsible for processing hearing information.
Wernicke's area, a location in this lobe, is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.

Thalamus

The primarily a sensory integration center.
All the senses, except smell send connections through this structure before they reach the cortex to be analyzed.
The anterior portion of the thalamus is involved with memory, motivation, and sleeping cycles.

Broca's area

An important area for the formation of speech in the Frontal lobe.

Cerebral Cortex

Convoluted portion of the brain that is divided into four lobes.

Hippocampus

It is strongly involved with memory, particularly changing short-term to long-term memory and memories for places.

Amygdala

This structure of the brain is associated strongly with fear responses and emotions.
When removed, things that would normally create fearful responses in organisms no longer create the same effect.

Wernike's Area

An area in the Temporal lobe that is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.

Cingulate gyrus

A portion of the cortex that helps associate memories with "triggers" such as smells or pain.
Also seems to help focus attention on emotionally charged events.

Basal Ganglia

From an emotional standpoint are very important for the "reward" system of the brain that gives a sense of pleasure.

Forebrain

Consists of the diencephalon, including the thalmus, optic chiasm, and hypothalmus., Top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality

Dura mater

The outermost meninges covering the brain; composed of tough fibrous connective tissue; its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull.

Pia mater

The innermost meninges covering the brain; delicate and highly vascular.

Choroid plexus

Structure that forms the cerebrospinal fluid.

Gyrus

Folds or bumps on the surface of the cerebrum

Sulci

Shallow fissures (grooves) that divide the brain and increase surface area

Limbic system

Associated with emotions (fear and aggression) and drives (hunger, thirst, and sex) and includes the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Cingulate Gyrus.

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