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Layers of the Earth

crust, mantle, core

Igneous Rocks

formed from cooling of molten rock, called lava.

Metamorphic Rocks

formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface. egin to form at 12-16 kilometers beneath the earth's surface. They begin changing at temperatures of 100 degrees Celsius to 800 degrees Celsius.

Sedimentary Rocks

formed in layers contain plant and animal remains,

minerals found in saltwater

salt (sodium chloride), iron, phosphates, nitrates, magnesium

Freshwater bodies

lakes, streams, rivers, ponds, marshes.

shore

shoreline, Beaches, Sandbar, Spit, Bay, Lagoon, Barrier islands, Arches and stacks

shoreline

the boundary where the land meets the sea

Beaches

deposits of sand and other fragments of rock left along the shoreline boundary

Sandbar

water currents deposit sand and debris in deeper water, parallel to the shore, and build up

Spit

a narrow piece of land which forms along a curved shoreline

Bay

part of the coastline where the rock has been gradually eroded by a large body of water

Lagoon

a body of water cut off from the sea by a sandbar or reef.

Barrier islands

islands made from sand and debris deposited parallel to the shore

Arches and stacks

formations of resistant rock left standing after softer rock had been worn away (eroded)

Continental shelf

underwater land at the edges of the continents

Continental slope

a steep slope running from the edge of the continental shelf down to the ocean floor; connects the continental shelf and the oceanic crust

Abyssal plain

wide, flat area that makes up most of the ocean floor

Mid-oceanic ridges

mountain ranges on the ocean floor

Weathering

the breakdown of rock to form sediment.

Erosion

weathered particles are moved from one location to another.

Stratus

smooth layers of low clouds; a low cloud form extending over a large area at altitudes of usually 2000 to 7000 feet (600 to 2100 meters)

Cumulus

dense puffy cloud having turret-shaped tops (rounded outlines), flat bottoms

Cirrus

feather-like; : a high wispy white cloud usually of minute ice crystals formed at altitudes between about 20,000 and 40,000 feet (6,000 and 12,000 meters)

6 major biomes on land:

rainforest, desert, grassland,deciduous forest, boreal forest, tundra

"Big Bang" Theory

named in 1950 by British scientist, Fred Hoyle

Paleontology

the science studying former life through fossils

Geologic time scale

sequence of events in the Earth's history

Paleozoic Era

543 -248 million years ago

Mesozoic era

248 - 65 million years ago

Cenozoic era

65 million years ago to present

Galaxy

a system of stars, gases, and dust all held together as a group by gravity

Milky Way

Earth's galaxy

Solar system

consists of a star, a group of planets and their satellites

Comets

large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits. Grows a tail when approaching the sun

Meteoroids

Rarely larger than a grain of sand.a meteor in outerspace, Does not orbit the sun

Meteors

"shooting stars" or "falling stars".must strike the first layers of the Earth's atmosphere.

Cells

: a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently

Nucleus

the "brain" of the cell; houses the codes that control cell activities; often centrally located; a cellular organelle of eukaryotes that is essential to cell functions (as reproduction and protein synthesis), is composed of nucleoplasm and a nucleoprotein-rich network from which chromosomes and nucleoli arise, and is enclosed in a definite membrane

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

a system of interconnected vesicular and lamellar cytoplasmic membranes that functions especially in the transport of materials within the cell and that is studded with ribosomes in some places

Chromosomes

rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing structures of cellular organisms that are located in the nucleus of eukaryotes, are usually ring-shaped in prokaryotes (as bacteria), and contain all or most of the genes of the organism

Cell Membrane

controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; outer "wall." a semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm

Nuclear membrane

controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus; inner "wall." a double membrane enclosing a cell nucleus and having its outer part continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi bodies

a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells; receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell

Ribosomes

make proteins

Cytoplasm

substance which holds all other parts in suspension within the cell

Mitochondria

the "powerhouse" of the cell; the site of energy production and release

Lysosomes

Organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.

Vacuoles

may be used by plants to store water

Plant Cell wall

made of cellulose ; gives shape and support to plant cells; tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer

Chloroplasts

organelles that contain chlorophyll which traps sunlight to help make food via photosynthesis

Taxonomy

the science of classifying living things

Phototropism

directional growth in which the direction of growth is determined by the direction of the light source.

Geotropism

is the growth of roots downwards, towards gravity

Roots

rincipal water-absorbing organs of a plant; must have vascular tissues, arranged in a particular way, Anchors plant, absorbs water and minderals, and stores food reserves

Stems

major aerial support system in most plants. Sometimes called a stalk or trunk, it holds up the plant into the air and provides a pathway for fluid transport between the shoot and the root

Leaves

part of the plant where most of the food is made

Diffusion

the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentratiion, to areas of low concentration.

Transpiration

the evaporation of water from plants

Respiration

plants use oxygen to break down sugar to release energy; 2 phase process the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell.

Organ Systems

re composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major ones in the human body

Ligaments

fibrous bands or sheets of connective tissue linking two or more bones, cartilages, or structures together.

Tendons

a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone[1] and is capable of withstanding tension.

Cartilage

a tough, elastic tissue that can withstand pressure

Muscles

cells and tissues that allow movement of an organ or body part

Skeletal muscle

attached to bones and allows voluntary (controlled by conscious thought) movement of limbs

Smooth muscle

found in internal organs and aids in involuntary (controlled by autonomic nervous system) movement in respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems; are found particularly in blood vessel walls, surrounding the intestine (particularly the gizzard in birds) and in the uterus.

Cardiac muscle

forms powerful walls of the heart; controlled by autonomic nervous system; type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium

Cornea

transparent thin outer covering of the eye that protects the iris and pupil; ogether with the lens, it refracts light, accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power

Pupil

small hole in the center of the eye, through which light enters; central transparent area (shows as black)

Iris

the colored muscles in the eye; a ring of muscle fibers located behind the cornea and in front of the lens. It contracts and expands, opening and closing the pupil, in response to the brightness of surrounding light; helps protect the retina

Lens

bends the rays of light to focus them on the retina

Retina

lines the back wall of the eye and contains rods and cones, which are light-sensitive receptor cells; seven layers of alternating cells and processes which convert a light signal into a neural signal ("signal transduction").

Optic nerve

also called cranial nerve II, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.

Heart

strong muscle which pumps blood to the lungs, organs, tissues and cells

Aorta

central conduit from the heart to the body;largest artery in the body,arises from the left ventricle of the heart, goes up (ascends) a little ways, bends over (arches), then goes down (descends) through the chest and through the abdomen to where ends by dividing into two arteries called the common iliac arteries that go to the legs.

Carotid artery

artery on each side of the neck that supplies blood to the brain and face

Superior vena cava

the largest vein returning deoxygenated blood into the heart

Capillaries

smallest vessels in the body where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged located within the tissues of the body.

Digestion

is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed;is a form of catabolism

Asexual reproduction

s reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization.

Budding

reproduce by growing a new organism out of a bud off a parent. Hydras exhibit this type of reproduction

Fragmentation

animal divides itself and each piece grows the missing parts and becomes a full offspring

Parthenogenesis

production of offspring from eggs which do not require fertilization by a "partner."

Trait

characteristic, such as eye color or height, which is coded for by genes contained on chromosomes

Work

refers to an activity involving a force and movement in the directon of the force.

Genes

the coded instructions in DNA; the "genetic code;" they are the basic units of inheritance

Chromosomes

A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.

Mitosis

2-step process by which all body cells of multi-cellular organisms multiply

Anemia

condition of a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood

Hemophilia

lack of platelets, which help the blood to clot

Goiter

disorder caused by lack of iodine and the over-activity (enlargement) of the thyroid gland

Rickets

a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.

Down's Syndrome

genetic error in which an extra chromosome (#21) is passed on

Homeostasis

tendency of a living organism towards balance and equilibrium

Endocrine system

system of glands which secrete hormones directly into the blood stream

Pituitary gland

small gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that influence growth, metabolism, and reproduction

Pancreas

gland behind the stomach that functions in both the endocrine and digestive system

Thyroid gland

large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism

Migration

the movement by animals over long distances in order to reproduce, mate, raise young, or find food

Hibernation

a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate.

Instinctive behavior

inborn responses to stimuli; An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli.

Unity

state or quality of being in accord; harmony

Adaptation

The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment.

Evolution

1. chemical -organic molecules were first formed. 2. development of single-celled organisms- capable of asexual reproduction. 3. development of complex, multi-cellular organisms - capable of sexual reproduction.

Theory of "Natural Selection."

theory that the earth's species have changed and diversified over time. first described by Charles Darwin. expression "survival of the fittest" was used to describe this process in the 19 century

Community

ecology, a general term applied to any grouping of populations of different organisms found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem.

Ecosystems

describes a community, its habitat, and all of the relationships within that habitat.

Ecology

the study of the relationships between organisms and their habitat

Green plants

producers because they make their own food

Herbivores

animals that eat green plants, are primary consumers

joule

a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second

Decomposers

break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem

Birth

main way new individuals join a population

Death

main way individuals leave a population

Immigration

individuals move into a population from elsewhere, thus increasing its size

Emigration

individuals move out of a population to elsewhere, thus decreasing its size

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

Solids

have a definite size and shape; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern

Liquids

have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart than a solid

Gases

no definite size or shape; will fill whatever space it occupies; particles move freely and are even farther apart from each other than a liquid

Mass

the amount of matter in an object; its "size";

Weight

the force of the Earth's gravity which pulls down on an object

Density

amount of mass packed into a given unit of volume; is the relative "heaviness" of an object

Viscosity

internal property of a fluid that offers resistance to flow.

Freezing point

the temperature at which a liquid will become a solid.

Boiling point

temperature at which a liquid will become a gas; this is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a given liquid reaches atmospheric pressure

other physical properties of matter

Color, Hardness, Size, Shape and Odor

Sublimation

a change from a solid to a gas without going through a liquid state

Condensation

a change from a gaseous to a liquid state caused by lowering the temperature

Evaporation

a change from a liquid to a gaseous state caused when a liquid is heated to its boiling point

pH scale

a range of numbers that measure of the strength of an acid or base

Catalyst

a substance which hastens a chemical reaction without itself undergoing chemical change

Mixture

contains 2 or more different substances that have not undergone a chemical reaction

Solution

a mixture in which small particles are spread evenly throughout a liquid, resulting in a physical change, but not a chemical change, in the liquid

Atoms

the smallest piece of matter that can exist on its own

Element

substance which contains only one kind of atom Cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means. There are 103 that are named with most of them occurring naturally

Periodic Table

lists the elements in order of their atomic number displays the full name of each element, its symbol, as well as its atomic mass

Molecule

an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong (covalent) chemical bonds.

Compound

substances made up of two or more elements that are combined in a chemical reaction

Motion

a change in position of an object or substance

Force

a push or pull acting on an object. can start a motion, stop a motion

Speed

the rate of motion of a body; expressed in distance per unit of time

Velocity

the rate of change of position. It is a vector physical quantity; both speed and direction are required to define it.

Distance

the extent of space between two objects or places

Acceleration

the rate of change in velocity when the velocity increases

Deceleration

the rate of change in velocity when the velocity decreases

Centripetal force

pulls the object inward; is a force that makes a body follow a curved path; it is always directed orthogonal to the velocity of the body, toward the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.

Centrifugal force

n object traveling in a circle behaves as if it is experiencing an outward force

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