formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface. egin to form at 12-16 kilometers beneath the earth's surface. They begin changing at temperatures of 100 degrees Celsius to 800 degrees Celsius.
Arches and stacks
formations of resistant rock left standing after softer rock had been worn away (eroded)
a steep slope running from the edge of the continental shelf down to the ocean floor; connects the continental shelf and the oceanic crust
smooth layers of low clouds; a low cloud form extending over a large area at altitudes of usually 2000 to 7000 feet (600 to 2100 meters)
feather-like; : a high wispy white cloud usually of minute ice crystals formed at altitudes between about 20,000 and 40,000 feet (6,000 and 12,000 meters)
large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits. Grows a tail when approaching the sun
: a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently
the "brain" of the cell; houses the codes that control cell activities; often centrally located; a cellular organelle of eukaryotes that is essential to cell functions (as reproduction and protein synthesis), is composed of nucleoplasm and a nucleoprotein-rich network from which chromosomes and nucleoli arise, and is enclosed in a definite membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
a system of interconnected vesicular and lamellar cytoplasmic membranes that functions especially in the transport of materials within the cell and that is studded with ribosomes in some places
rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing structures of cellular organisms that are located in the nucleus of eukaryotes, are usually ring-shaped in prokaryotes (as bacteria), and contain all or most of the genes of the organism
controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; outer "wall." a semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm
controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus; inner "wall." a double membrane enclosing a cell nucleus and having its outer part continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells; receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell
Organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
Plant Cell wall
made of cellulose ; gives shape and support to plant cells; tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer
organelles that contain chlorophyll which traps sunlight to help make food via photosynthesis
directional growth in which the direction of growth is determined by the direction of the light source.
rincipal water-absorbing organs of a plant; must have vascular tissues, arranged in a particular way, Anchors plant, absorbs water and minderals, and stores food reserves
major aerial support system in most plants. Sometimes called a stalk or trunk, it holds up the plant into the air and provides a pathway for fluid transport between the shoot and the root
the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentratiion, to areas of low concentration.
plants use oxygen to break down sugar to release energy; 2 phase process the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell.
re composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major ones in the human body
fibrous bands or sheets of connective tissue linking two or more bones, cartilages, or structures together.
a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
attached to bones and allows voluntary (controlled by conscious thought) movement of limbs
found in internal organs and aids in involuntary (controlled by autonomic nervous system) movement in respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems; are found particularly in blood vessel walls, surrounding the intestine (particularly the gizzard in birds) and in the uterus.
forms powerful walls of the heart; controlled by autonomic nervous system; type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium
transparent thin outer covering of the eye that protects the iris and pupil; ogether with the lens, it refracts light, accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power
small hole in the center of the eye, through which light enters; central transparent area (shows as black)
the colored muscles in the eye; a ring of muscle fibers located behind the cornea and in front of the lens. It contracts and expands, opening and closing the pupil, in response to the brightness of surrounding light; helps protect the retina
lines the back wall of the eye and contains rods and cones, which are light-sensitive receptor cells; seven layers of alternating cells and processes which convert a light signal into a neural signal ("signal transduction").
also called cranial nerve II, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
central conduit from the heart to the body;largest artery in the body,arises from the left ventricle of the heart, goes up (ascends) a little ways, bends over (arches), then goes down (descends) through the chest and through the abdomen to where ends by dividing into two arteries called the common iliac arteries that go to the legs.
smallest vessels in the body where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged located within the tissues of the body.
is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed;is a form of catabolism
s reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization.
reproduce by growing a new organism out of a bud off a parent. Hydras exhibit this type of reproduction
animal divides itself and each piece grows the missing parts and becomes a full offspring
production of offspring from eggs which do not require fertilization by a "partner."
characteristic, such as eye color or height, which is coded for by genes contained on chromosomes
A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.
condition of a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood
a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.
small gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that influence growth, metabolism, and reproduction
large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism
the movement by animals over long distances in order to reproduce, mate, raise young, or find food
a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate.
inborn responses to stimuli; An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli.
The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment.
1. chemical -organic molecules were first formed. 2. development of single-celled organisms- capable of asexual reproduction. 3. development of complex, multi-cellular organisms - capable of sexual reproduction.
Theory of "Natural Selection."
theory that the earth's species have changed and diversified over time. first described by Charles Darwin. expression "survival of the fittest" was used to describe this process in the 19 century
ecology, a general term applied to any grouping of populations of different organisms found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem.
a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
have a definite size and shape; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern
have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart than a solid
no definite size or shape; will fill whatever space it occupies; particles move freely and are even farther apart from each other than a liquid
amount of mass packed into a given unit of volume; is the relative "heaviness" of an object
temperature at which a liquid will become a gas; this is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a given liquid reaches atmospheric pressure
a change from a liquid to a gaseous state caused when a liquid is heated to its boiling point
a mixture in which small particles are spread evenly throughout a liquid, resulting in a physical change, but not a chemical change, in the liquid
substance which contains only one kind of atom Cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means. There are 103 that are named with most of them occurring naturally
lists the elements in order of their atomic number displays the full name of each element, its symbol, as well as its atomic mass
an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong (covalent) chemical bonds.
the rate of change of position. It is a vector physical quantity; both speed and direction are required to define it.
pulls the object inward; is a force that makes a body follow a curved path; it is always directed orthogonal to the velocity of the body, toward the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.
Newton's law of motion 1
Every object at rest remains at rest, and every object in motion continues moving in a straight line at a steady rate, unless acted upon by an outside force
condition in which all forces and influences acting upon an object cancel each other out and equalize
energy stored within a physical system as a result of the position or configuration of the different parts of that system. It has the potential to be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, and to do work in the process; measured in Joules
energy of electromagnetic waves; energy that travels through space in the form of waves
energy stored in the nucleus of every atom may be released by a fission reaction or by a fusion reaction
a bar that pivots about a fixed point and thus reduces the amount of the force required to lift an object
he active twin of the inclined plane. It does useful work by moving, reduces the amount of force needed to do the work; functions by converting a force applied to its blunt end into forces perpendicular (normal) to its inclined surfaces
are oscillating (up and down) movements in which the surface of water rises and falls, the particles travel in clockwise circles.
are transverse waves that travel at the speed of light in a vacuum; are formed when an electric field couples with a magnetic field
have medium-sized wavelengths, consist of tiny particles of radiation travel fast and straight, they don't require a material to travel through, and they can move through a vacuum.
the transfer of heat from particle to particle that occurs when two substances of different temperatures come into contact with each other
the flow of electrons (negatively charged atomic particles) through a conductor to create energy
easurement of how much potential energy exists to move electrons from one particular point in that circuit to another particular point
measure the flow of electrical current (the steady flow of electrons through a conductor)
Ω, are a unit of measurement of electrical resistance. Resistance is the opposition of the flow of something
the property of some objects, like iron, aluminum, nickel and cobalt, which allows them to attract other magnetic objects to themselves like poles repel; opposite poles attract; ed to describe how materials respond on the microscopic level to an applied magnetic field;
an unbroken path (closed loop) formed by electrical conductors through which electricity can flow
conducting investigations and looking for explanations to questions about the physical world
wrote about acceleration, motion and gravity; developed the first astronomical telescope and made many discoveries in astronomy
a statement of expected outcome under a particular set of conditions, generally accepted to be true and universal; may be expressed in terms of a simple mathematical equation;
a statement based on educated observations which may be tested and may be proven; is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based on proven hypotheses and verified multiple times
Conservation of Energy
energy must remain constant in a system and cannot be recreated but it can change forms
Conservation of Momentum
total momentum remains the same unless acted upon by an outside force (p=mv, where m is mass and v is velocity)
all the water on the earth's surface, and sometimes including water over the earth's surface, such as clouds
the regions of the surface of the earth, atmosphere, and hydrosphere occupied by living organisms; Includes all organic matter that has not yet decomposed
layers of the atmosphere
troposphere (half of the atmosphere, where weather occurs), stratosphere (jets fly), mesosphere (rock fragments and meteors burn), thermosphere (auroras), and exosphere (outer limits, atmosphere thins)
1,800 miles thick, plasticity (ability of solid to flow) circulating currents causing the plates to move; Constitutes about 84 percent of Earth's volume. predominantly solid
the earth's crust is divided into plates of various sizes and thickness; these continually shift and drift; there are continental plates and oceanic plates
Transform (rubbing) plate movement
movement where two plates slide laterally past each other;results in earthquakes
the process of changing structures through the effects of wind, water, ice, sun, and gravity
forms when layers of sediment are compressed (i.e. sandstone, coal, limestone, shale)
forms through the transformation of igneous and sedimentary rocks through heat and pressure (i.e. marble, slate, quartzite)
Principle of Uniformitarianism
The scientific laws the govern the Earth today are the same since the beginning of time (the present is the key to the past)
Law of Superposition
The oldest rock and events are found at the bottom of formations, and the youngest at the top
a very long or indefinite period of time that explains the age of the universe and can be measured by billions of years; the geological time scale describes two - both equal to one billion years
geological time from the formation of the Earth itself to the start of the Cambrian period. This immensely long stretch of time - some four billion years or more - saw the formation of the Earth as a planetary body, including geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere, as well as the appearance of the biosphere and hence the transformation of the Earth from a dead planet to a living one.
the time since the formation of life-forms to the present day; divided into three eras: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
early life (543-248 million years ago); single cell organisms, shells, mollusks, brachiopods, rise of first vertebrates, rise of land plants, amphibians, insects, seed plants, and trees, and reptiles
middle life (245-144 million years ago); rise of mammals and dinosaurs; the rise of birds; extinction of dinosaurs, rise of flowering plants
present life (65 million years ago-present) the rise of primates, horses, hominids and modern manangiosperm or flowering plants, the insects, the newest fish (teleostei) or modern birds.
any solid object moving in interplanetary space that is much larger than an atom or a molecule, but smaller than a few meters in diameter
revolves around the sun and possesses a tail and a nucleus; the tail always points away from the sun due to solar wind
a type of boundary system astronomers use for organizing the night sky; there are 88 regions, and each region is named for a group of stars found within it
takes one lunar month to revolve around the earth (28 days); the same side is seen from the earth at all times
new moon, (waxing or waning) crescent moon, quarter moon, (waxing or waning) gibbous moon, and full moon
eclipse which occurs whenever the moon passes behind the earth such that the earth blocks the sun's rays from striking the moon
ccurs when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth so that the Sun is fully or partially covered. This can only happen during a new moon, when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction as seen from the Earth.
single-celled organism without nuclei (bacteria); One of the five kingdoms of living organisms in the five-kingdom classification, consisting of microscopic usually monocellular prokaryotic organisms that mostly reproduce by asexual fission, sporulation, or budding; it includes the bacteria and cyanophytes (blue-green algae), as well as certain primitive pathogenic microbes, such as the Rickettsias.
eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals: protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae
a group of simple plants that have no chlorophyll; single-celled and multi-celled organisms (mushrooms, mold, yeast, lichen)
multi-cellular plant organisms (moss, fern, pine, flowering); Kingdom thst contains ontains nearly 300,000 different species of plants
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti)
Linnean classification system
contains organisms genetically related through ancestry; nformally, informally can be thought of as grouping animals based on general body plan, as well as developmental or internal organizations
Taxonomic classificaton that specifically divides class into smaller shared characteristics. Ie Primates
divides order into smaller groups in which organisms have multiple traits in common, usually comprising several to many genera
Classification generally consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics
characteristics of all living things
made of protoplasm, organized into cells, use energy, capable of growth, have definite life spans, reproduce, affected by, adapt and respond to environment
a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose
An individual living thing that can react to stimuli, reproduce, grow, and maintain homeostasis. It can be a virus, bacterium, protist, fungus, plant or an animal.
functions of a cell
manufactures proteins and other materials for building cells, molecule transport, reproduction, and energy conversion
made of two layers of lipids, called a lipid bilayer, permits inward passage of needed items; outward passage of waste
all materials outside the nucleus; a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended. eighty percent water and usually clear in color
Organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
packages the proteins and transports them through the cell; cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
A membrane-bound vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell whose function includes intracellular secretion, excretion, storage, and digestion.
found in plant cells; made of cellulose, provides rigid structure for plant; functions as a membrane
The usually underground portion of a plant that lacks buds, leaves, or nodes and serves as support, draws minerals and water from the surrounding soil, and sometimes stores food.
builder; use water and carbon dioxide as raw materials to manufacture food (called "carbohydrates") and oxygen for a green plant
eight basic functions of animals
nutrition, respiration, response, regulation (glands & hormones), excretion, circulation, movement, reproduction
a cell that creates two identical pairs of chromosomes, splits and forms nuclei around the chromosomes (mitosis)
cell division that produces gametes for sexual reproduction; involves a reduction in the amount of genetic material.
made up of genes that are comprised of strands of DNA; come in pairs with a gene for each trait on each part of the pair; traits can be dominant or recessive
on of the two principles of evolution; producing and passing on traits that are helpful and necessary for the survival of the organism
large changes that occur after successive, small, and random changes in traits; through natural selection, the best traits for the specific environment are kept or propagated forth
survival of the fittest
one of the two principles of evolution; organisms best adapted to their environment will generally produce the most offspring; offspring with more favorable traits will survive and reproduce
Interdependence of Organisms
1. atoms and molecules cycle through living and nonliving matter 2. energy travels in a specific direction (food chain) 3. organisms cooperate and compete 4. living organisms have the ability to produce unlimited populations, but environments and resources are limited 5. human beings live within the world's ecosystems and alter them
A system that includes all living organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its physical environment (abiotic factors) functioning together as a unit; made up of plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, rocks, minerals, water sources and the local atmosphere interacting with one another.
the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) parts of the ecosystem are in equilibrium.
something so small, it can no longer be divided; the smallest measurement of matter; contains nucleus (protons and neutrons) and seven shells (orbiting electrons); the atomic mass is figured based on the total number of protons and neutrons
matter that cannot be separated into different kinds of matter; s a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its nucleus.
Hydrogen (H); Carbon (C); Gold (Au); Iron (Fe); Sulfur (S); Calcium (Ca); Oxygen (O); Copper (Cu); Nickel (Ni); Aluminum (Al); Iodine (I); Sodium (Na); Helium (He); Silver (Ag); Tin (Sn); Nitrogen (N); Potassium (K); Magnesium (Mg)
Water (H2O), table salt (NaCL); carbon dioxide (CO2); baking soda (NaHCO3); carbon monoxide (CO); sand or glass (SiO2)
takes on the shape of its container, with definite volume and molecular forces weaker than a solid but stronger than a gas
movements of states of matter
SOLID - decrease pressure, increase energy - LIQUID decrease pressure, increase energy - GAS
when an object is moved through a distance in response to some force; energy is transferred from one object to another (____ = force x distance)
the energy that could do work, if released, i.e. a ball held at the top of a hill
The Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
the sum of the matter and energy in the universe remains the same
form of energy which transfers among particles in a substance (or system) by means of kinetic energy of those particle. determined by how active its atoms and molecules are. (more active equals more heat)
the movement of particles from a high concentration to an area of low concentration; occurs until the concentrations in all areas are the same to achieve a state of equilibrium
tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.
types of energy
heat, sound, light, magnetism, mechanical, electric, chemical, nuclear; all forms can change into other forms without loss of energy
type of heat movement in which heat moves from warmer areas to cooler areas along materials that conduct
describes any process in which energy emitted by one body travels through a medium or through space, ultimately to be absorbed by another body
produced by causing a series of compressions and rare fractions (waves) of molecules; travels quickest through solids and slowest through gases
longitudinal movement in which the compressions and rare fractions travel spherically outward from the source
the distance between two successive compressions or two successive rare fractions
four rules of light
travels in rays (straight lines); travels more slowly through denser objects; travels in transverse ways; is an electromagnetic wave created by causing electrons to move rapidly and emit energy
can produce light, heat, motion, and magnetic force; flows through a conductor as current
Coulomb's laws of electricity
like charges repel one another; opposite charges attract one another
the forces that oppose electrical current in a conductor; measured in ohms; no conductor without it has been discovered
a circuit having its parts connected serially, if one resistance is disconnected, the circuit will fail
a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit
a tool with few or no moving parts that does work; there are six types: lever, wedge, incline plane, pulley, wheel & axel, screw
magnifies force, increases speed or changes direction, and is used to lift things; First class, fulcrum is in the middle, with effort and load on either side; Second class, fulcrum is at the end with load in the middle and effort at the other end; Third class, fulcrum is at the end, with effort in the middle and load at the other end
magnifies force and distance increases; is used help move things up and down; one of the original six simple machines
reduces force needed to move an object, but increases distance; changes the direction of force
wheel & axel
increases speed, facilitates motion and movement of objects; a lever that rotates in a circle around a center point or fulcrum.
Energy released from a substance, or absorbed in the formation of a chemical compound, during a chemical reaction.
the nucleus of the atom forms a different kind of element producing increased energy; s released by the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the nuclei of atom(s).
when two or more nuclei are smashed together with increased force to form a different kind of nucleus (i.e. the sun or hydrogen bomb)
A double membrane bound organelle involved in the synthesis and storage of food, and is commonly found within the cells of photosynthetic organisms, like plants.have their own DNA and ribosomes
easiest part of a comet to see with the naked eye. Dust is pushed back by solar radiation
is an astronomical event in which hundreds or thousands of dust-sized meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere and almost immediately burn up, creating a short-lived glowing streak in the night sky.
ne of the types of protoplasm, and it is enveloped by the nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope; is a highly viscous liquid that surrounds the chromosomes and nucleoli; nuclear sap;
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
One of the basic concepts of the theory states that atoms and molecules possess an energy of motion that we perceive as temperature
any atoms and molecules are attracted to each other as a result of various _________ ____________ such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and others
Atoms and molecules that have relatively small amounts of energy (and movement) will interact ________ with each other
slightly or not at all
Atoms and molecules that have relatively high energy will interact ______________with others
are formed when the attractive forces between individual molecules are greater than the energy causing them to move apart. Individual molecules are locked in position near each other, and cannot move past one another.
are formed when the energy (usually in the form of heat) of a system is increased and the rigid structure of the solid state is broken down. molecules can move past one another and bump into other molecules; however, they remain relatively close to each other like solids.
are formed when the energy in the system exceeds all of the attractive forces between molecules. molecules have little interaction with each other beyond occasionally bumping into one another.
hot, ionized gases. Are formed under conditions of extremely high energy, so high, in fact, that molecules are ripped apart and only free atoms exist.
plasmas have so much energy that the ________ ________ are actually ripped off of individual atoms, thus forming a gas of highly energetic, charged ions.
Temperature at which molecular motion stops; calculated to be -273.15 degrees Celsius; Scientists have never cooled a substance to this temperature though they have come close
Factor needed that raises the temperature of an object, thereby preventing scientists from cooling it to absolute zero
Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein
predicted 5th state of matter existed in the 1920's (2 people)
gaseous superfluids cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero; all the atoms of the condensate attain the same quantum-mechanical state and can flow past one another without friction
B-E condensates can actually _______ _________, releasing it when the state breaks down.
100 degrees Celsius (100ºC)
no matter how high the flame is on the stove, a pot of boiling water will remain at _________ until all of the water has undergone transition to the gas phase
a network of cytoplasmic filaments that are responsible for the movement of the cell and give the cell its shape