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mitochondrion

What organelle in the cell carries out most of the steps of cellular respiration?

process that breaks apart food in order to build ATP, a series of steps that release food's energy a little bit at a time, cells use this energy to make ATP, The main point of cellular respiration is to convert food energy into ATP energy.

What is the definition of cellular respiration?

glycolysis

What is the first step in cellular respiration?

one molecule of sugar is split into 2 pieces, Each piece is call pyruvate,
C-C-C-C-C-C ---> C-C-C C-C-C

What happens during glycolysis?

In the cytoplasm

Where does glycolysis occur in the cell?

if oxygen is available, cellular respiration proceeds in the mitochondria, if oxygen is absent, some cells carry out fermentation
oxygen present --->prep, Krebs, electron transport, food completely broken apart, build lots of ATP
oxygen absent--->fermentation, food partially broken apart, build a little ATP

What are the two pathways that might follow glycolysis?

oxygen +food yields carbon dioxide +water+energy

Write the "word" equation for cellular respiration?

alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation

What are the two main types of fermentation?

yeast

Which cells carry out alcoholic fermentation?

during intense exercise when oxygen supply is used up in muscle tissue

When does lactic acid fermentation occur?

fermentation does not require oxygen and only makes 2 ATPs per sugar, it partially breaks apart food, cellular respiration requires oxygen and makes 36 ATPs per sugar, it completely breaks apart food

What is the main difference between fermentation and cellular respiration?

they both break down sugars and release energy, they both start with glycolysis producing pyruvate (chopping sugar in half), both convert some energy into ATP

How are fermentation and cellular respiration similar?

Most of cellular respiration - prep stage, Krebs cycle (also called citric acid cycle), and electron transport

What processes occur inside the mitochondrion during cellular respiration?

carbon and oxygen are broken off each one, producing 2 CO2, the sugar fragments are now called acetyl-coA, 2 hydrogens are pulled off

Before entering the Krebs cycle, what happens to the two pyruvates?

The sugar fragments are completely broken apart, 2 ATPS are made, 8 hydrogens are pulled off the sugar pieces, and 4 CO2 are released

What happens in the Kreb's Cycle?

carbon dioxide, which you exhale

What is the main waste product of the Kreb's cycle?

8 high-energy hydrogens are pulled off of food (forming 6NADH and 2FADH), plus 2 ATPs

What useful products are made during the Kreb's cycle?

uses the high energy hydrogens pulled off of food and delivered from the other stages to build ATP, For each sugar molecule, 32 ATPs are made during this stage, the electron transport chain creates a hydrogen gradient, the only way for the hydrogens to get away from each other is to pass through an enzyme that builds ATP

What is the purpose of the electron transport chain?

All of the time, they need energy 24/7

When do organisms perform cellular respiration?

Yes, cellular respiration does not create or destroy energy, it only converts it (food energy ---> ATP) Every time energy is converted, some ends up as useless heat

Does cellular respiration follow the laws of thermodynamics?

what one produces, the other uses,CR produces CO2 and water,PS produces sugar and oxygen

Why are photosynthesis and respiration complementary to each other?

carbon dioxide

What substance produced in alcoholic fermentation makes bread dough rise?

No, the atoms are just rearranged as bonds are made and broken,Sugar has six carbon atoms and these atoms end up in carbon dioxide, sugar has 12 hydrogen atoms and they end up in water

Does cellular respiration create or destroy atoms?

About 40%

What % of the energy in food gets used to build ATP?

About 60%

What % of the energy in food ends up as heat?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 +6H2O + ENERGY

What is the chemical formula for cellular respiration?

they are shaped like a kidney bean and have an inner membrane that is highly folded

How can you recognize mitochondria?

carbon dioxide and water

What are the main waste products of cellular respiration?

All living things break apart food to release energy and make ATP, Plants, animals, fungi, protists, and bacteria

What types of organisms perform cellular respiration?

They become part of carbon dioxide and get released during the prep stage and the Krebs stage = exhaled

During cellular respiration, what happens to the carbon atoms in the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats that you ate?

They get yanked off and eventually join with the oxygen you inhaled to form water (once they release their energy)

During cellular respiration, what happens to all of the hydrogen atoms in the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats that you ate?

Your cells convert it to fat and store it

Cellular respiration is all about providing your cells with energy. If you consume more energy than you need, what will happen to this "extra energy"?

Photosynthesis

All of the food broken apart during cellular respiration can ultimately be traced back to this process

NAD and FAD (as NADH and FADH)

Which molecules shuttle hydrogen atoms removed from food to the electron transport chain?

A very cool protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane. As hydrogens flow through this protein, it spins, attaching a P to ADP to form lots of ATP. this protein is both a transport protein and an enzyme

What is ATP synthase?

Your digestive system breaks the food you eat into tiny pieces that can get inside of your cells. You cannot get any energy from your food until it actually enters your cells

What does your digestive system have to do with cellular respiration?

6 of each, 6 CO2 and 6H2O

If you completely break apart one sugar molecule, how many molecules of carbon dioxide will you produce and how many molecules of water?

2

In order to start cellular respiration, you must spend a little energy = activation energy, How many ATPs does it take to get the process going?

Respiration = breathing, when you breath, you inhale oxygen for your cells to use during electron transport and you exhale the carbon dioxide produced during the prep stage and the Krebs cycle

What does your respiratory system have to do with cellular respiration?

Your blood delivers sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids to your cells, as well as oxygen. Your blood removes the carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration.

What does your circulatory system have to do with cellular respiration?

Carbon dioxide and water

No matter what kind of food you eat, if this food goes through cellular respiration, the atoms end up in which two molecules?

40% is trapped in ATP, 60% ends up in the form of heat and leaves your body

What happens to the energy released from your food during cellular respiration?

build

Food does not turn into ATP, rather the energy released from your food is used to ________ ATP

to move, for active transport, to build proteins, to build DNA, to think, to help your cells divide. Anything in cells that requires energy needs ATP

Why do you need ATP?

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