CH 6: 4. Describe the general structure of a bone, and list the functions of its parts.

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Epiphysis

expanded portion at each end; articulates (forms joints) with another bone.

Articular Cartilage

hyaline cartilage coating the articulating portion of the epiphysis.

Diaphysis

shaft of bone; located between the epiphyses.

Periosteum

a. tough, vascular covering of fibrous tissue which, except for the articular cartilage on its ends, completely encloses the bone.
b. firmly attached to bone, and periosteal fibers are continuous with ligaments and tendons.
c. functions in formation and repair of bone tissue.

Compact Bone

tightly packed tissue of which the walls of the diaphysis are mainly composed; has a continuous matrix with no gaps.

Spongy Bone

epiphyses largely composed of this; consists of many branching bone plates called trabeculae; irregular connecting spaces between these plates help reduce bone's weight; contains red bone marrow.

Medullary Cavity

semi-rigid tube with a hollow chamber found in the compact bone in diaphyses of long bones.

Endosteum

thin membrane containing bone-forming cells that lines medullary cavity.

Marrow

specialized type of soft connective tissue filing medullary cavity or in spaces in spongy bone; may be red or yellow; at birth all bone marrow is red; adults have on average about 2.6 kg of bone marrow, with bout half of it being red. In cases of sever blood loss, yellow can be converted back to red.

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