Heart and Blood Vessels

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A & P Lab Exam I

Arteries that supply blood to cardiac muscle.

Coronary muscle

Layer of heart wall containing cardiac muscle.

Myocardium

Extensions of the atria.

Auricles

The heart is located here in the area between the lungs.

Mediastinum

Lines the heart chamber.

Endocardium

Pointed inferior part of the heart.

Apex

Two heart pumps,; lowers heart chamber.

Ventricles

Superior heart chambers

atria

another name for visceral pericardium

epicardium

wide superior part of the heart

base

blood pumped by the right ventricale (oxygen-rich or oxygen-poor)

oxygen-poor

blood pumped by the left ventricle (oxygen-rich or oxygen-poor)

oxygen-rich

Enlarged muscles in ventricles that are attached to chordae tendinae.

Papillary muscles

Muscle ridges in ventricles

Trabeculae carnae

Ridges in the anterior wall of the right atrium

Pectinate muscles

Strings attached to AV cusps

Chordae tendinae

Blood vessel that returns blood from the body inferior to the heart.

Inferior vena cava

The valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta.

Mitral bicuspid

A membrane between the atria that closes after birth.

Fossa ovalis

The valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle.

Tricuspid

Anterior branch of the left coronary artery; lies in anterior interventricular sulcus.

Anterior interventricular branch

Posterior branch of the right coronary artery; lies in posterior interventricular sulcus

Posterior interventricular branch

Branch of the left coronary artery that curves around the left side and lies in the coronary sulcus.

Circumflex branch

Branch of the left coronary artery that supplies both ventricles.

Anterior interventricular branch

Shorter coronary artery that is hidden anteriorly by the pulmonary trunk.

Left coronary artery

Vein that drains coronary circulation into the right atrium

Coronary sinus

The vein that drains most of the anterior ventricles.

Great cardiac vein.

The vein that drains the posterior ventricles.

Middle cardiac vein

The vein that drains the right anterior side.

Small cardiac vein

When the blood flows from the superior vena cava to the heart, to the pulmonary circulation, and out of the heart to the systemic circulation, list all the structures that blood flows through.

superior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta

What is the function of the pericardial fliud?

It prevents friction between the visceral and parietal pericardial layers.

If a person has pulmonary valve prolapse, which circulation is affected the most: pulmonary, systemic, or cardiac circulation?

Systemic circulation

A blood clot (thrombus) in which artery of the coronary circulation would be more likely to cause sudden death?

Anterior interventricular branch because it supplies the majority of blood to the walls of both ventricles.

The pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries are colored blue in all of the figures. Why are they colored blue like most veins?

They carry oxygen poor blood from the right atrium to lung capillaries.

If the foramen ovale does not fully close after birth, what will happen?

Oxygen poor blood will bypass the lungs and enter the aorta.

If a person has endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis, what areas (in order) are infected?

Endocardium, myocardium, epicardium

Athletes have thicker heart walls than non-athletes. Which layer of the heart enlarges? Explain:

The myocardium enlarges to provide the increase in cardiac output needed during excercise.

Atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves have different structures. Explain if high pressure from above or below each type of valve opens the valves.

Atrioventricular valves are opened by pressure from above. Semilunar valves are opened by pressure from below.

Which ventricular wall is thicker? What is the significance of this?

The left ventricular wall is thicker. The left ventricle pumps blood with more force to overcome the higher blood pressure in the aorta and to open the aortic valve.

The heart has many anastomoses. What benefit are these to the heart?

Anastomoses in coronary circulation allows alternate blood pathways to and from all parts of the heart muscle if one is blocked

What is the significance of the difference in the vessel wall thickness between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk?

The aorta is thicker because it contains blood at a higher pressure than the pulmonary trunk.

Using your knowledge, explain why mitral valve prolapse occurs more often than tricuspid prolapse.

The mitral valve only has two cusps and resists a greater pressure when the left ventricle contracts.

How would heart function be affected if the AV valves did not completely close during ventricular contraction?

Cardiac output would decrease because some blood would reflux into the atria instead of into the aorta or pulmonary trunk.

Trace a drop of blood from the ascending aorta to the right coronary artery and trace the blood back into the heart again.

Tracing Blood Flow
ascending aorta; left coronary artery; anterior interventricular artery; left ventricular capillaries;
great cardiac vein; coronary sinus; right atrium

What are the external arteries called when they pass the inguinal ligaments?

femoral arteries

Varicose veins are common, but are there also varicose arteries?

no; arteries have thicker walls and no valves

What are the names of the paired veins that drain the head and neck?

jugular veins

In the arm and forearm, is it deep veins or superficial veins that accompany arteries within the same names as the veins?

deep veins

Which vein of the upper limb is typically used to draw a blood sample?

median cubital vein

Where is the azygos vein located, and what area does it drain?

to the right of the vertebral column in the thorax; drains the thorax and abdominal wall

Usually arteries carry nutrient-rich blood, but there are veins that do also. What are their names?

hepatic portal veins

Balloon catheters are inserted into the femoral artery to unblock coronary vessels. Name all the arterial structures, in order, that the balloon catheter passes through from the right femoral artery to the right coronary artery.

right femoral artery, right external iliac artery, right common iliac artery, abdominal aorta, thoracic aorta, aortic arch, ascending aorta, right coronary artery

Trace a drop of blood from the aorta to the small intestine and back to the right atrium. Include, in order, the major arteries and veins.

abdominal aorta, superior mesenteric artery, branches of superior mesenteric artery, capillaries of small intestine, branches of superior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, right atrium

Trace a drop of blood from the aorta to the skin of the face and back to the right atrium. Include, in order, the major arteries and veins.

ascending aorta, aortic arch, brachiocephalic trunk or left common carotid

(a) brachiocephalic trunk, right common carotid, right external carotid, arteries serving skin of right side of face, capillaries, veins draining skin of right side of face, right external jugular vein, right subclavian vein, right brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, right atrium

or

(b) left common carotid, left external carotid, arteries serving skin of left side of face, capillaries, veins draining skin of left side of face, left external jugular vein, left subclavian vein, left brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, right atrium

A blockage in the right internal carotid does not necessarily cause a loss of blood supply to the brain. (a) Identify the area of the brain supplied by the right internal carotid, and name the vessels that would supply blood to this area if thee is a blockage in the right internal carotid artery. (b) Is a thrombus in the exteral carotid life threatening?

(a) The right internal carotid artery supplies blood to the right anterior and right middle surfaces of the cerebrum. If the right internal carotid artery is blocked, the basilar and left internal carotid arteries would supply blood to the blood vessels which supply these areas through the anastomoses forming the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis). (b) No, because the external carotid artery supplies blood to the face and scalp and not the brain.

What blood vessel supplies blood to the radius (bone) and radial nerve?

radial artery

What blood vessel supplies blood to the skin covering anterior thigh?

femoral artery

What blood vessel supplies blood to the rectus femoris muscle?

femoral artery

Regresses considerably with age.

thymus

Largest lymphatic organ; red and white pulp

spleen

Bean-shaped; has efferent and afferent vessels

lymph nodes

What are the primary lymphatic organs?

red bone marrow; thymus

What are the secondary lymphatic organs?

lymph nodes, spleen
8.

What are the secondary lymphatic nodules associated with the nasal and oral cavities?

tonsils

What are the secondary lymphatic nodules located in connective tissue of mucous membranes?

MALT

Secondary lymphatic nodules located in the small intestine.

Peyer's patches (aggregated lymphatic follicle)

What filters lymph?

lymph nodes

What are the sites for immune response?

lymph nodes, spleen, MALT, aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer's patches), appendix, tonsils

What filters blood and contains red and white pulp?

spleen

What programs T Cells for immunocompetence?

thymus

What programs B Cells for immunocompetence?

red bone marrow

What fluid becomes interstitial fluid?

plasma

What fluid becomes lymph?

interstitial fluid

What is interstititial fluid plus blood cells and large protetins?

blood

What is the sac-like vessel?

cisterna chyli

What is the left lymphatic duct?

thoracic duct

Merge to form lymphatic trunks

lymphatic vessels

Merge to form lymphatic ducts

lymphatic trunks

The thoracic duct begins here

cisterna chyli

Drains the legs, abdominal area, and left side of the body

thoracic duct

Drains the right side of the thorax, arm, head, and neck

right lymphatic duct

The longer lymphatic duct

thoracic duct

What immune cell has maturation and immunocompetency in the red bone marrow?

B cells

What immune cell has maturation and immunocompetency in the thymus gland?

T cells

What immune cell is located in the secondary organs and tissues?

B and T cells

How would the lymph that is leaving the cisterna chyli differ from lymph draining into the right lymphatic duct?

The lacteals (lymphatic capillaries) in the small intestine absorb dietary lipids (chylomicrons) and lipid soluble vitamins into the lymph. Lacteals drain into the cisterna chyli, that in turn drains into the thoracic duct. The right lymphatic duct does not receive any lymph from the small intestine so it would not contain any dietary fat.

If you look into a child's mouth, there are

Palatine tonsils

How do lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries?

Lymphatic capillaries are slightly larger in diameter than blood capillaries and have one-way openings that drain interstitial fluid into them. In addition, they are attached to surrounding tissues by anchoring filaments and they are closed at one end.

If you dissected a fetal pig or a young cat, what difference would you expect in the thymus compared to the adult?

The thymus of the fetal pig or young cat is very large compared to an adult. The thymus regresses with age and is replaced by adipose tissue.

Why are the walls of the lymphatic vessels thin, like veins?

The pressure in lymphatic vessels is low.

Bacteria and viruses in infected tissues easily enter lymph vessels. Explain why?

Bacteria and viruses can be picked up by lymphatic capillaries that have large openings to drain interstitial fluid. From here, microbes enter the lymphatic vessels.

If a woman had a radial mastectomy (removal of a cancerous breast, surrounding tissues with axillary lymph nodes, and anterior thoracic muscles), would you expect the arm on that side to be edematous (have edema)? Explain.

Yes. Lymph nodes have lymphatic vessels leading into them that would drain the axillary area around the lymph nodes of excess interstitial fluid. When these structures are removed, excess interstitial fluid may build up.

Would you describe the flow of lymph through lymph through lymph nodes as being fast or slow, compared with blood capillaries?

Slower than blood capillaries due to the lymph node structure. Each lymph node has more afferent vessels entering it than efferent vessels leaving it. This slows lymph flow through the node.

What would be missing in lymph exiting a lymph node, compared with lymph entering the node?

Bacteria, viruses, worn out cells, and other debris engulfed by macrophages.

A patient has enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes that are very tender to the touch. Examination of the feet reveals a small cut between the 3rd and 4th toes, which are warm and red. What would your initial impression be, and why are the lymph nodes enlarged?

Bacteria entered the body through the small cut between the toes and traveled up the lymphatic vessels of the leg into the inguinal lymph nodes. Lymph travels through the lymph nodes slowly, allowing phagocytosis to occur by macrophages. The increased number of bacteria in the lymph nodes causes swelling.

How does a person contract elephantiasis?

A person contracts elephantiasis when an infected female mosquito transfers parasitic worm larvae to the human's body fluid as it bites and draws blood.

How does elephantiasis affect the lymphatic system?

The parasite worm lives in the human's lymph system, causing severe edema by blocking the lymph flow. The immune response to this foreign parasite can also cause fever, chills, headache and pain.

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