Patho Ch 8 Q & A

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D

Which of the following is an example of a strong acid?
a. Albumin
b. Inorganic phosphorus
c. Sodium
d. Lactate

A

An anion gap of 16 can be calculated by which of the following scenarios?
a. Sodium 146, chloride 102, bicarbonate 26 mEq/L
b. Sodium 140, chloride 102, bicarbonate 26 mEq/L
c. Sodium 136, chloride 122, bicarbonate 30 mEq/L
d. Sodium 148, chloride 100, bicarbonate 28 mEq/L

B

Fluid loss in response to hypervolemia is promoted by:
a. Stimulating secretion of ADH, promoting urinary sodium and water elimination
b. Inhibiting the secretion of aldosterone, promoting urinary sodium and water elimination
c. Lowering mean arterial pressure
d. Administering osmotically active fluids

B

Which of the following ions is most closely related to water movement?
a. Potassium
b. Sodium
c. Chloride
d. Calcium

A

A pH of 7.5 is defined as
a. Alkalosis
b. Acidosis
c. Acidemia
d. Alkalemia

D

Which compartment contains the greatest amount of body water?
a. Transcellular
b. Plasma
c. Interstitial
d. Intracellular

B

Which of the following transport mechanisms is associated with movement of water across a semipermeable membrane?
a. Diffusion
b. Osmosis
c. Facilitated diffusion
d. Active transport

A

Which one of the following conditions will most likely result in edema?
a. Intravascular filtration pressure greater than interstitial filtration pressure
b. Intravascular reabsorption greater than interstitial reabsorption
c. Intravascular oncotic pressure greater than interstitial oncotic pressure
d. Increased lymphatic reabsorption

C

An example of anion exchange includes:
a. Sodium and hydrogen exchange
b. Sodium and chloride exchange
c. Bicarbonate and chloride exchange
d. Hydrogen and bicarbonate exchange

A

Hypokalemia is often associated with which one of the following conditions?
a. Metabolic alkalosis
b. Metabolic acidosis
c. Hyperchloremia
d. None of the above

D

Metabolic acidosis may be associated with
a. Increased chloride levels
b. Increased metabolic acids
c. Decreased bicarbonate
d. All of the above

B

Ascites is the primary mechanism of body fluid imbalance in which of the following conditions?
a. Salt-losing tubulopathy
b. Cirrhosis
c. AIDS
d. Isonatremic dehydration

C

Hyperlactatemia due to drug treatment is a complication in which of the following conditions?
a. Salt-losing tubulopathy
b. Cirrhosis
c. AIDS
d. Isonatremic dehydration

A

Hypokalemia is a hallmark of which one of the following conditions?
a. Salt-losing tubulopathy
b. Cirrhosis
c. AIDS
d. Isonatremic dehydration

C

Hypotonic fluid loss may result in
a. Hyponatremic dehydration
b. Isonatremic dehydration
c. Hypernatremic dehydration
d. None of the above

A

Two thirds of the body's total water is located in the:
a. Intracellular compartment
b. Extracellular compartment
c. Vascular compartment
d. Endothelial compartment

D

Ethel, your 80-year-old neighbor, just returned from a clinic visit. She tells you that she had her electrolytes drawn for a blood test. Ethel asks you what "electrolytes" are. You tell her that they are:
a. Hypotonic particles
b. Osmoreceptor particles
c. Aquaporins
d. Electrically charged particles known as ions

B

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) helps maintain appropriate fluid levels in the body. ADH is released when there is a(n):
a. Decreased blood osmolality
b. Increased blood osmolality
c. Ion gap
d. Osmoreceptor decrease

C

Evelyn has increased fluid retention related to her congestive heart failure. Her health care provider would like to increase Evelyn's fluid excretion. The most common method for increasing fluid excretion includes the use of:
a. Angiotensin
b. Aldosterone
c. Diuretics
d. Aquaporine

A

Solutions that have a greater osmolality than the intracellular fluid (ICF) are called:
a. Hypertonic
b. Hypotonic
c. Hyperactive
d. Isotonic

B

Anne is experiencing a disruption in her pH balance. Which buffer system is the first to respond?
a. Renal
b. Plasma
c. Respiratory
d. Alkaline

D

The processes by which the kidneys contribute acids in order to maintain the pH balance include all of the following except:
a. Secretion of hydrogen
b. Reabsorption of sodium
c. Production of ammonium ions
d. Amphoteric secretion

A

Within the protein buffer system, albumin and plasma globulins can function as either acid or base. The term that describes this ability is:
a. Amphoteric
b. Nonvolatile
c. Strong ion difference
d. Osmotic absorption

D

The primary substances involved in the bicarbonate buffer system include:
a. H2Cco3
b. NaHCO3
c. HCO3
d. a and b
e. b and c

B

A potential problem that can occur as the potassium and hydrogen ion exchange attempts to maintain the pH balance is:
a. Hypokalemia
b. Hyperkalemia
c. Hyponatremia
d. Hypernatremia

C

Hypotonic hypovolemia is also known as:
a. Edema
b. Water detoxification
c. Water intoxification
d. Amphoteric intoxification

C

Hyponatremia causes cells to:
a. Become hyperresponsive
b. Remain static
c. swell
d. Shrink

D

A mechanism contributing to the development of metabolic acidosis is:
a. decreased H + ions
b. Increased HCO3- ions
c. Loss of Cl- ions
Increase of CL- ions

C

In metabolic acidosis, there is a reduction of _____ and a(n) _______ in pH.
a. HCO3-, increase
b. Cl-, decrease
c. HCO3-, decrease
d. H2CO3-, decrease

C

In metabolic alkalosis, there is a reduction of _____ and a(n) _______ in pH.
a. HCO3-, increase
b. Cl-, decrease
c. HCO3-, decrease
d. H2CO3-, decrease

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