Biology - Tissues

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Chapters 5-7 Tissues

Histology

the study of tissues

Intercellular Junctions

the cell membranes of tightly packed cells are connected by these

Tight Junctions

1 of 3 types of Intercellular Junction ... fuse cell membranes of adjacent cells (belt) ... found in the lining walls of capillaries in the brain (blood-brain barrier)

Desmosomes

structures forming "spot welds" between adjacent cell membranes ... found in the epidermis (top layer of skin)

Gap Junctions

funnels between cell membranes of adjacent cells ... found in cardiac muscle

epithelial cells

cells that make up the epithelial tissue ... lack blood vessels ... tightly packed together ... divide very fast ... classified by shape and number of cells

epithelial tissues

1 - lines body cavities, 2 - cover organs, 3 - protect, 4 - absorb substances, 5 - lacks blood cells ... always has a free surface and a basement membrane ... found: covers body surfaces and organs ... forms the inner lining of cavities ... it lines hollow organs (colon, small and large intestines, stomach) ... function: line body cavities, cover organs, protect, absorb substances

free surface

a side exposed to the outside or to an open space internally

basement membrane

the underside of epithelium tissue is anchored to CT by a thin, nonliving layer

simple epithelium

one single layer of epithelial tissue ... functions: absorb, secrete, filter

stratified epithelium

2 or more cell layers of epithelial tissue ... functions: protect, some secretion

squamous epithelium

thin, flat, irregular shaped cells

cuboidal epithelium

cube-like shaped cells

columnar epithelium

tall, elongated cells with nucleus generally near the bottom

simple squamous epithelium

1 layer ... flat cells ... substances pass easily through ... easily damaged (thin) ... found: lungs, kidneys, blood capillaries ... function: to allow easy filtration, secretion, absorption

simple cuboidal epithelium

1 layer ... cube-like cells ... found: kidneys, thyroid gland ... function: allow easy absorption, filtration, secretion

simple columnar epithelium

1 layer ... long cells ... sometimes have cilia ... found: linings of uterus, stomach, intestines, fallopian tubes ... function: some protection, secretion, absorption

cilia

hair-like extensions of a cell membrane ... moves

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

1 layer ... columnar cells ... appears to be stratified, but not all cells reach the surface ... usually have cilia ... found: trachea

stratified squamous epithelium

many layers ... top layer squamous ... deep layer cuboidal ... found: outer layer of skin, lining of oral cavity ... vagina ... anal canal ... function: protection

stratified cuboidal epithelium

2-3 layers ... top layer cuboidal ... found: surface of ovaries, salivary and mammary glands, lining of kidney tubules ... function: secretion of substances (saliva, milk, etc.)

stratified columnar epithelium

many layers ... top layer columnar ... function: protection ... found: urethra, pharynx (throat)

transitional epithelium

several layers ... cuboidal, then stretch in response to pressure (squamous) ... found: inner lining of urinary bladder, ureter, urethra ... function: allow stretching of the organ that has it ...

connective tissue (CT)

covers, supports, protects ... MOST abundant tissue in body ... function: BINDS organs to body cavities, provides SUPPORT and PROTECTION, fills spaces between organs and body parts, STORES energy in the form of lipids, PROTECTION from pathogens, DELIVERS gases (O2, CO2) STORES calcium ... cells far apart ... abundant extracellular matrix

extracellular matrix

liquid (plasma) ... molecule (calcium phosphate) ... protein fibers ... good blood supply

3 types of CELLS in CT

1 - fibroblast ... 2 - macrophages (histiocytes) ... 3 - mast cells

fibroblast

fixed cell ... common in CT ... star shaped ... function: make protein fibers and to release them into the extracellular matric ... produces CT fibers

macrophages

wandering cell ... originate as monocytes (from bone) cells ... function: phagocytizes (engulfs) cells: bacteria, dead cells

mast cells

release histamine (dilate blood vessels) and release heparin (prevents blood clotting)

3 types of FIBERS in CT

1 - elastic, 2 - collagenous, 3 - reticular

elastic fibers

made from the protein elastin ... flexible, not too strong ... found: outer ear, tip of nose

collagenous fibers

very strong (great tensile) ... made of collagen ... thick ... not too flexible ... skin, sclera, tendons, ligaments

reticular fibers

made of thin collagen ... form network to support organs ... mesh-like

connective tissue proper

loose and dense CT (Areolar, Adipose, Dense Regular CT)

specialized connective tissue

cartilage, bone, blood

2 types of CT categories

CT proper ... specialized CT

Areolar CT

loose, thin membrane ... most COMMON type ... several collagenous and elastic fibers ... fibroblasts are MAINLY found here ... found: under skin, fills spaces between muscles, beneath most epithelial tissues

Adipose CT

(fat) ... cells are called adipocytes ... found: beneath skin, behind and around organs, between muscles ... function: protection, insulation of body temp, cushions organs, stores energy

adipocyte

nucleus is pushed to one side to allow for more space in cytoplasm to store fat

Dense Regular CT

mainly fibroblasts ... thick collagenous fibers and few elastic fibers ... poor blood flow ... function: binds body parts or organs ... found: tendons, ligaments

tendons

attaches muscle to bone (CT)

ligaments

attaches bone to bone (CT)

cartilage

contains mainly collagenous fibers and some elastic fibers ... chondrocytes ... found: between vertebrae (intervertebral discs), sternum, external ear, tip of nose

chondrocytes

cartilage cells

Hyaline cartilage

most common type ... tip of nose, ends of bones, an embryo's skeleton

bone

most rigid CT (stores minerals - calcium, phosphate - contains a lot of collagenous fibers) ... function: support body weight, protects organs, stores and releases minerals (calcium, phosphate)

osteoblast

bone cells that deposit bone matrix

osteocyte

mature bone cells

blood

RBC, WBC ... found: heart, blood vessels ... function: transports substances (O2, nutrients, etc.) ... fights infection

plasma

extracellular matrix of blood

muscle tissue

function: moves body parts ... are contractible (shorten and thicken) ...

muscle cells

aka muscle fibers (elongated cells)

3 types of muscle tissues

1 - skeletal, 2 - cardiac, 3 - smooth

skeletal muscle tissue

muscle attached to bone ... striated, voluntary ... long, cylindrical in shape ... multi-nucleated cell ... have striations

multi-nucleated

more than one nucleus

striations

cells joined end-to-end ... alternate dark and light bands found on skeletal and cardiac muscle

cardiac muscle tissue

only found in heart ... striated, involuntary ... long, but branched, one nucleus per cell, cells joined by intercalated discs ... function: heart movement (contraction)

intercalated discs

gap junctions

smooth muscle tissue

found at the walls of MOST hollow organs ... found: stomach, intestines, esophagus, etc. ... nonstriated, involuntary ... shorter than skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue cells, one nucleus, spindle-shaped cell

Nervous Tissue

coordinates body functions ... found: 1 - brain, 2 - spinal cord, 3 - peripheral nerves ... function: sensory reception (pain, touch, etc.), conduction of nerve impulses

2 nervous tissue cells

Neuron, Neuroglia

Neuron

function: senses changes in body environment (internally and externally) and responds by firing nerve impulses

Neuroglia

supports neurons, kills pathogens, supplies nutrients to neurons, cleans surrounding of neurons

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