Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd President, who orginally was the assisant secretary of war. He had amazing political appeal, deep concern for the "forgotten man", and overcame polio as well as helped the nation survive the Great Depression.
Distant cousin/spouse of FDR. She was a champion of the dispossessed and the "conscience of the New Deal". FDR's political career was as much hers as it was his own. She became the most active First Lady in history. She lobbied her husband, made speeches, and had a newspaper column. She strongly influenced the policies of the national government but also battled for the impoverished and opressed.
New Deal programs issued by the Democratic Congress. They were summoned during a "Hundred Days" in order to soothe the national emergency. The programs aimed at RELIEF, RECOVERY, and REFORM. The short term goals were relief and recovery while the long term goals were permanent recovery and reform of current abuses. These reforms came back to the pre WWI progressive movement. They embraced progressive ideas such as unemployment insurance, old age insurance, minimum-wage regulations, conservations and development of national resources and restrictions on child labor.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
1933 law that invested the president with power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks.
Roosevelt's messeges delivered over the radio (35 in all) to reassure that it was now safer to keep money in a reopened bank than "under a mattress". Confidence boosted and the banks unlocked their doors.
Glass-Steagall Banking Relief Act
Congress helped butress public reliance on the banking system by enacting this relief act that provided fo the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insured individual deposis up to $5,000-thus ending the disgraceful epidemic of bank failures.
Civilian Conservation Corps
One of the most popular of the New Deals. This law provided employment in fresh-air government camps for about 3 million uniformed young men (many of whom otherwise might have been driven by desperation into criminal habits). Their work was useful; it included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage. The recruits were required to help their parents by sending home most of their pay. Human resources and natural resources were conserved however people complained of militarizing the nation's youth.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
(FERA) Major relief effort to help the millions of unemployed adults. The aim was immediate relief rather than long-range recovery. Headed by Harry L. Hopkins.
Harry L. Hopkins
New York social worker whoheaded th Federal Emergency Relief Administration. He became one of the most nfluential advisors and his agency granted abot $3 billion to the states for direct dole payments or preferably for wages on work projects.
Civil Works Administration
(CWA) 1933 this was a branch of FERA. It was designed to provide temporary jobs during he wnter of the emergency. Tens of thousands of jobless were employed at leaf raking/other make-work tasks dubbed "boondogling". This scheme was largely criticized.
Huey P. Long
(Kingfish) Broadcasted on the radio Populist who was also governor of LA, who criticized the new deal policy. He publicized his "share our wealth" proram which promised to make "every man a king" by giving every family $5000.Later shot by an assasin.
Works Progress Administration
(WPA) The objective was employment on useful projects. It provided 9 million people jobs as well as helped provide jobs for needy high school and college students. Congress authorized, intially intended for industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. In time over $4 billion was spent on 34,000 projects which included publice buildings, highways and parkways. One achievement was the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River.
Where prohibition was officially repealed in 1933.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Congress established this aganecy to establish "parity prices" for basic commodiies. The AAA would eliminate price depressing surpluses by paying growers o reduce heir crop acreage. However, the milions of dollars needed for these payments were to be raised by taxing. The AAA got off to a wobbly start and nobody was truly happy. Paying the farmers not to farm actually increased unemployment. The Supreme Court declared its regulatory taxation provisions unconstitutional. The Congress paseed the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act in 1936.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1935
"Indian New Deal". This new law encouraged ribes to establish local self-government and to preserve their native crafts and traditions. This act also helped to stop the loss of Indian lands and revived tribes' interest in their identity and culture. Yet not all indians applauded it; some felt they were being made into museum pieces byt the Americans. Nearly 200 tribes accepted it while approximately 70 did not.
Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC) was designed as a wachdog administrative agency. Stock markets henceforth were o perate more as trading marts and less as gambling casinos.
Federal Housing Administration
Policy to speed recovery and develop better homes. The building industry was to be stimulaed by small loans to householders, both for improving their dwellings and for completing new ones.
Social Security Act of 1935
One of the most complicated and far-reaching laws ever to pass congress. To cushion future depressions, the measure provided for federal-state unemployment insurance. To provide security for old age, specified categories of retired workers were to recieve regualre payments from Washington. The payments ranged from $10-85 per month. They were financed by a payroll tax on both employers and employees. Provision was made for the blind, handicapped, delinquent children and other dependents. This system was largely inspired by the industrialized nations of Europe. In an industrilized boom-or-bust cycle, the gov was now recognizing its responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. By 1939 it reached ober 45 million people.
When the Supreme Court nixed the NRA, Congress set up this National Labor Relaions Board (1935). It was created for administrative purposes and reasserted the rght of labor to engage in self-organizing and to bargain collectively through representatives of its own choice. The Wagner Act proved to be one of the real milestones of the US labor movement.
Fair Labor and Standards Act
In 1938, Congress passed a better deal for laborers. This Wages and Hours Bill made industries involved in interstate commerce set up minimum-wage and maximum-hour levels. The eventual goals were 48 cents an hour and 40 hours a week.
Alfred M. Landon
Republican presidential candidate who ran against Roosevelt in his second term. From Kansas, he was a moderate who accepted some New Deal reforms although not the Social Security Act. The platform vigorously condemned the New Deal Roosevelt for its radicalism, experimantaton, confusion, and frightful waste.
Hatch Act of 1939
This act barred federal administrative officials, except the highest policy making officers, from active political campaigning and soliciting. It also forbade the use of government funds for political purposed as well as the collection of campaign contribtutions from people recieving relief payments. It was broadened in 1940 to place limits on campaign contributions and expenditures but such clever ways of getting around it were found that on the whole the legislation proved disappointing.