Chapter 11: Stress and Health Psychology

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adding stuff as we get it

Stressor

any environmental demand that creates a sense of tension
requires that we adapt and adjust

Adjustment

any effort to cope with stress

Stress

state of psychological tension or strain

Richard Lazarus

specialized in stress, life's petty annoyances, and frustrations
things that bother you everyday

Pressure

feeling that you need to speed up, intensify, or change the direction of your behavior

Frustration

feeling that occurs when we are prevented reaching a goal

5 Sources of Frustration

1. Delays
2. Lack of resources
3. Losses
4. Failures
5. Discrimination

Charles G. Morris

developed 5 sources of frustration

9

__ out of 10 drivers have experienced road rage toward them

1500-2000

____-____ injuries and fatalities due to road rage

Conflict

causes: incompatible demands, opportunities, and needs or goals

Kurt Lewin

did a study on conflict in 1935 and developed the 3 basic types of conflict

Approach/Approach Conflict

have to make a choice of 2 equally appealing things but must do only 1

Avoidance/Avoidance Conflict

have to choose 1 but you don't want to do either of them

Approach/Avoidance Conflict

2 possibilities, each have good AND bad qualities, attracted and repelled at the same time

Optimists

happy about life and see life as a challenge and not a threat

Pessimists

dwell on failure, expect to fail, probably will fail

Internal Locus of Control

you believe you are responsible for your own actions

External Locus of Control

it's everyone else's fault, or due to luck/destiny
causes less stress

Hardiness

tolerate stress exceptionally well, THRIVE on stress

Resilience

bounce back and can let things go easily

Direct Coping

see stress, hit it head on, see stress as being problem oriented, need to make some changes, immediate issues

3 Strategies of Direct Coping

Confrontation, Compromise, and Withdrawal

Confrontation

attack problem head on and find solution, anger can be effective if expressed with restraint

Compromise

deciding on a more realistic solution or goal when the ideal solution or goal is not practical

Compromise is the...

most common and effective way of coping directly with stress

Withdrawal

avoiding a situation
can be effective when compromise is not possible

____ Americans live with extreme stress

1/3

HD EEG

cap with 256 electrobes while going through a [usually monotonous] virtualbuilding

Hypocretes

father of modern medicine; 60 different ways of living

__-__% of the effect of any biological cure is caused by the placebo effect

30-50

Repression

too painful to deal with; push them into the unconcious

Regression

turn to a previous stage of development and be immature

Reaction Formation

taking opposite belief because true belief causes anxiety

Projection

placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto somone else
ex. losing an argument and saying "you're stupid"

Rationalization

making up excuses for your behavior
ex. "I was fired because i didn't kiss up to the boss"

Displacement

taking anger out on another person or thing
ex. slamming the door

Sublimation

act out unacceptable impulses in socially acceptable ways
ex. working out when angry

Denial

refusing to accept the reality of a situation

Suppression

trying to forget something that causes you anxiety

Intellectualization

trying to avoid unacceptable emotions by focusing on intellectual aspects

European Americans

seek explicit social support

Asian Americans

enjoy big and close contact with others but don't disclose reason for stress

Women

report that they are far more stressed

Oxytocin

linked to by the tend and befirend response
causes you to be more loving

Testosterone

reduces oxytocin

Walter Cannon

discovered fight or flight

Hans Selye

coined General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

GAS

Alarm Reaction---> Resistance----> Exhaustion

Alarm Reaction

began when body realized danger

Resistance

physical symptoms and other signs of strain appear as we struggle against increasing psychological disorganization
use of inappropriate coping techniques

Exhaustion

completely exhausted after a period of chronic stress
ineffective coping mechanisms
synical belief that nothing is worth it
leads to Stockholm Syndrome

Stockholm Syndrome

people who have been kidnapped have identified with the captors and want to please them

Type A

everything HAS to be perfect, deal with life with patience and hostility, constantly striving for stress, everything has to be in order, never late
----high blood pressure, higher heart rate, more likely to get coronary heart disease

Type B

nothing bothers them, little annoyances of life are whatever, no test anxiety-- who cares?

Type C

introvertive, sensitive, thoughtful, perfectionist

Type D

"disstressed personality" depression, shyness, pessimistic, sarcastic, cornary heart disease, too much cortizol (can cause heart attack

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

studies reaction between stress and the immune system, endocrine system, and our nervous system

4 proven ways to reduce stress

calm down, reach out, religion and alturism, learn to cope effectively

Calm Down

exercise, excessive writing, relaxation training

Reach Out

to friends and family

Religion and Alturism

elderly people who pray more are less sick and are happier

Alturism

help other peple

Learn to Cope Effectively

sometimes we make things worse than they are

Proactive Coping

be proactive, anticipate stressful events and take stepsto avoid them or minimize impact

Positive Reappraisal

taking a second to look back at a stressful event and look for the positive things

4 ways to a healthy lifestyle

Diet, exercise, quit smoking, avoid high risk behaviors

Extreme stressors in order

1 unemployment
2 divorce/separation
3 Bereavement
4 Catastrophes
5 Combat and other threatening attacks

Over ____% of marriages end in divorce

50

Over ____% of children under 18 are a product of a divorce

40

Bereavement

death of a loved one

3 stages of dealing with catastrophes

shock stage, suggestible, recovery stage

3 things that help people with PTSD

need to be at sight of trauma, emotional support from family and friends, and expectation that the person will return back to normal life

Maslow

made hierarchy of needs (know them for the test)
believed well adjusted people seek to actualize themselves, are unconventional, and creative thinkers

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