Which of the following is the simplest form of elicited behavior?
a. the habitation response
b. feedback stimuli
*c. reflexive behavior
d. the sensitization process
Which two closely related events constitute a reflex?
a. eliciting outcome; corresponding reward
*b. eliciting stimulus; corresponding response
c. eliciting response; corresponding outcome
d. eliciting response; corresponding reward
What is the correct pathway of the neural signal in a reflex arc?
a. afferent neuron, efferent neuron, interneuron
b. efferent neuron, afferent neuron, interneuron
c. afferent neuron, sensory neuron, efferent neuron
*d. afferent neuron, interneuron, efferent neuron
Of the following, which is not a reflexive behavior?
a. a baby pulling away when its nose and mouth are covered
*b. maintaining attention when driving
c. turning to the location of a loud noise
d. sneezing in response to dust
Which of the following is the incorrect statement about reflexive behaviors?
a. Most reflexes promote the well-being of the organism.
*b. Simple reflexes are not influenced by higher nervous system functions.
c. Reflexes are the simplest form of elicited behavior.
d. The organization of the nervous system determines the specificity of the stimulus/response relationship.
Which of the following is true regarding any given modal action pattern?
a. usually found in many species
*b. involves species-specific responses
c. cannot be elicited by a stimulus found in the organism's usual environment
d. involves movement towards or away from a stimulus
Which of the following is not a modal action pattern?
*a. the startle response of rats
b. the beak-pecking behavior of herring gull chicks
c. the nest building behaviors of male sticklebacks
d. the egg-retrieval behavior of herring gulls
Which of the following is one of the characteristics of a modal action pattern?
a. The eliciting stimulus is usually easy to identify.
*b. They are species-specific response patterns.
c. The threshold for eliciting the behavior is relatively invariant.
d. The eliciting stimulus will have similar effects over different situations.
Which of the following most correctly describes a sign stimulus?
a. first causes sensitization, then habituation
b. first causes habituation, then sensitization
*c. sufficient for eliciting a modal action pattern
d. similar to an instinct
Your professor is conducting an investigation of visual attention in infants. A relatively complex pattern will be presented to the infants, hopefully eliciting visual attention. What do you predict will happen with repeated presentations of the complex visual stimulus?
a. The infants will show uniformly high levels of responding across all trials.
*b. The infants will increase, then decrease, responding.
c. The infants will decrease, then increase, responding.
d. The infants will show a high level of responding on the first trial, then decreasing responding on subsequent trials.
Which of the following is true of visual attention in human infants?
a. All stimuli elicit similar responses across repeated presentations.
*b. Infants initially increase responding to repeated presentations of complex stimuli and decrease responding to repeated presentations of simple stimuli.
c. Infants initially increase responding to repeated presentations of simple stimuli and decrease responding to repeated presentations of complex stimuli.
d. Infants increase responding to all stimuli as they become familiar with repeated presentations.
The stabilimeter measures which of the following?
*a. startle responses in rats
b. taxes in rats
c. kinesis in rats
d. orientation responses in rats
Which of the following is a true statement about habituation?
a. increases responsiveness to a stimulus with repeated presentations
*b. decreases responsiveness to a stimulus with repeated presentations
c. either increases or decreases responsiveness to a stimulus with repeated presentations, depending on the background cues
d. both increases and decreases responsiveness to a stimulus with repeated presentations
Repeated presentation of a stimulus will cause which of the following?
a. both habituation and sensitization effects
b. either habituation or sensitization effects, depending on the subject's level of arousal
*c. only habituation effects or only sensitization effects, regardless of background conditions
d. invariant behavior changes if it is a true eliciting stimulus
Habituation and sensitization effects perform which of the following functions?
a. Focus attention on all stimuli present.
b. Direct responses to all stimuli present.
c. Focus attention on background stimuli.
*d. Focus attention on relevant stimuli.
A loud tone is repeatedly presented to a group of rats. Initially, there is a large startle response that decreases across trials. The response decrease across trials may be due to
c. sensory adaptation.
*d. All of the above
Repeated presentations of a tactile stimulus make the skin receptors less sensitive, and responding decreases across trials. This is an example of
a. response fatigue.
*b. sensory adaptation.
Response fatigue occurs during which of the following conditions?
*a. Repeated actions cause muscles to temporarily weaken.
b. Changes in the nervous system hinder transmission of neural impulses.
c. Neurophysiological changes alter sense organs.
d. All of the above
Sensory adaptation occurs in which of the following physiological areas?
a. the nervous system
*b. the sense organ
c. the muscle tissue
d. the interneuron
Fatigue occurs in which of the following physiological areas?
a. the nervous system
b. the sense organ
*c. the muscle tissue
d. the interneuron
To rule out response fatigue as the cause for the decreased responding that occurs over repeated presentations of a stimulus, the researcher should
a. determine if the subject can still sense the stimulus.
b. determine if the subject is responding to the stimulus in other ways.
*c. present a new stimulus that elicits a similar response.
d. present a new stimulus that elicits an unrelated response.
A bright light causes a startle response. The second presentation of the light elicits less of a response because the subject was temporarily blinded by the first light flash. This is an example of
*c. sensory adaptation.
Sensory adaptation refers to changes in responses that occur due to which of the following?
a. changes in the nervous system that hinder transmission from sensory to motor neurons
b. changes in the nervous system that facilitate transmission from sensory to motor neurons
*c. changes in the sensory receptors
d. changes in the muscles
The dual-process theory assumes which of the following?
a. One neural process is responsible for increases and decreases in responsiveness to stimulation.
*b. Different types of neural mechanisms are responsible for increases and decreases in responsiveness to stimulation.
c. Habituation and sensitization effects are essentially the same.
d. Habituation is due to fatigue; sensitization is due to learning.
***Which of the following is not true of the dual-process theory?
a. Different processes are assumed to underlie increases and decreases in responsiveness to stimulation.
*b. The habituation and sensitization processes are mutually exclusive.
c. The habituation effect is not a direct reflection of the habituation process.
d. The sensitization effect is not a direct reflection of the sensitization process.
***According to Groves and Thompson (1970), which of the following is true?
*a. Habituation and sensitization processes occur in different parts of the nervous system.
b. Habituation is similar to fatigue; sensitization is similar to adaptation.
c. Habituation is similar to adaptation; sensitization is similar to fatigue.
d. Both habituation and sensitization occur at the level of the sensory receptors.
***Habituation processes occur in the _____ system. Sensitization processes occur in the _____ system.
a. state; sensory
b. S-R; S-S
*c. S-R; state
d. state; S-S
***According to the dual-process theory, when rats were tested with a relatively quiet background noise, their response to a startling tone
a. habituated because the state system was already responding to auditory stimuli.
*b. habituated because only the S-R system was activated.
c. sensitized because the state system was responding to the background tone.
d. sensitized because both the state and S-R systems were activated.
***Why would the same tone result in habituation for rats exposed to a low level background noise and sensitization for rats exposed to high level background noise?
a. Only the high level background noise masked the tone.
b. Only the low level background noise masked the tone.
c. The low level background noise and tone combination activated the state and S-R system.
*d. The high level background noise and tone combination activated the state and S-R system.
***According to the dual-process theory, each presentation of a given stimulus activates
a. both the state and S-R systems.
b. the state system and may activate the S-R system.
*c. the S-R system.
d. the state system.
****The time course of sensitization is determined by
a. the S-R system.
*b. the intensity of the stimulus.
c. the long-term mechanism.
d. None of the above; sensitization effects are all short-term.
***After you habituate to the sound of one clock's chime, you may not respond to the chime of another clock. This is due to
a. stimulus specificity.
*b. stimulus generalization.
c. long-term habituation effects.
d. spontaneous recovery.
***Spontaneous recovery from habituation occurs
*a. after time passes.
b. after a strong extraneous stimulus is presented.
c. after a weak extraneous stimulus is presented.
d. All of the above
***In Aplysia, the role of the facilitory interneuron is to
a. increase sensitivity of the motor neuron.
*b. increase the release of neurotransmitter from the sensory neuron.
c. decrease the sensitivity of the motor neuron.
d. decrease the release of neurotransmitter from the motor neuron.
***Habituation in the Aplysia occurs due to
a. changes in the facilitory interneuron.
b. changes in the sensitivity of the motor neuron.
*c. changes in the amount of neurotransmitter released by the sensory neuron.
d. changes in the action potential of the sensory neuron.