Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects though intracellular
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimmulus
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.
The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________.
is partly contained within the infudibulum
Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?
All of these are signs.
Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?
type of hormone
) release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
is inhibited by alcohol
) Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________.
entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
) production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.
Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
direct control of the nervous system
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
) Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.
hepatic portal system
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.
it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ________.
during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.
) G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.
steriod hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
bones and skeletal muscles
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.
targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
) Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.
Leptin is secreted by ________.
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.
Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?
Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?
a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messenger systems include ________.
possible activation of several different second-messenger systems
Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.
first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
) Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?
of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?
Which statement best describes arteries?
All carry blood away from the heart
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.
The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________.
hepatic portal circulation
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.
) Aldosterone will ________.
promote an increase in blood pressure
The pulse pressure is ________.
) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign?
) rapidly falling blood pressure
Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?
Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?
) The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.
Which of the following is true about veins?
Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs
Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?
Peripheral resistance ________.
) increases as blood viscosity increases
Brain blood flow autoregulation ________.
C) is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist
special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________.
Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?
pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)
Which blood type is called the universal donor?
Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?
) maintenance of normal pH in body tissues
Which of the following is a protective function of blood?
prevention of blood loss
Which of the statements below is an incorrect or false statement?
Blood typing for the Kell, Lewis, and Duffy factors is always done before a blood transfusion.
Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
As red blood cells age ________.
) membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged
An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen
The most abundant plasma protein is ________.
When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ________.
Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation
marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.
) Blood volume restorers include all of the following except ________.
James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is ________.
within the normal range
Which of these is not a normal plasma protein?
Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?
closure of the heart valves
Which of the events below does not occur when the semilunar valves are open?
Ventricles are in diastole
Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.
a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
) The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.
pump blood with greater pressure
Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block
The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.
) Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________.
Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ________.
The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.
To auscultate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope in the ________.
second intercostal space to the left of the sternum
The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.
The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it ________.
pumps blood against a greater resistance
Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?
Which of the following is not an age-related change affecting the heart?
thinning of the valve flaps
) If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.
decreased delivery of oxygen
If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells ________.
tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action
Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ______
causing threshold to be reached more quickly
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that ________.
) the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
Foramen ovale ________.
connects the two atria in the fetal heart
Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole?
which of these vessels receives blood during ventricular systole?
both the aorta and pulmonary trunk
Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?
The tricuspid valve is closed ________.
when the ventricle is in systole
When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.
) noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
Select the correct statement about the heart valves.
The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur
select the correct statement about the function of myocardial cells.
The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all.
Select the correct statement about the structure of the heart wall.
The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts.
Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.
has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium
During the period of ventricular filling ________.
blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles
The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
) isovolumetric relaxation
) The time of day most hazardous for heart attacks is ________.
If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid, ________.
threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase
Select the correct statement about cardiac output
A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction.
During contraction of heart muscle cells ________.
some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores
Isovolumetric contraction ________.
refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.
Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?
The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________.
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.
skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
The thymus is most active during ________.
Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
right lymphatic duct
What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.
The lymphatic capillaries are ________.
more permeable than blood capillaries
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.
Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.
efferent lymphatic vessels
Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.
forming crypts that trap bacteria
When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.
severe localized edema distal to the blockage
Select the correct statement about lymph transport.
Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.
Select the correct statement about lymphocytes
) B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue
Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.
Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
) Peyer's patches are found in the ________.
ileum of the small intestine
Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?
What is a bubo?
an infected lymph node
) The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not
) directly fight antigens
Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.
Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.
) islets of Langerhans
Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?
smooth muscle contraction
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.
Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
red blood cells
A sentinel node is ________.
) the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue
A and C
Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
transporting respiratory gases
Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
) B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.
Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.
The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds.
In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
NK cells are a type of neutrophil.
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________.
Which of the following does not respond to cell-mediated immunity?
pathogens in the CNS
________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections
interfere with viral replication within cells
________ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist.
Regulatory T cells ________.
may function in preventing autoimmune reactions
Select the correct definition about tissue grafts
Isografts are between identical twins
Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?
Antigens only come from microbes.
________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
) Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
reactivity with an antibody
cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Graft rejection may be caused by ________.
using a xenograft
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.
natural killer cells
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
It is specific for a given organ.
Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.
Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
allergic contact dermatitis
Innate immune system defenses include ________.
Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?
C) Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.
Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
) is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
) Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."
Tolerance is developed during fetal life.
Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies
Cytotoxic T cells ________.
are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
Helper T cells ________.
function in the adaptive immune system activation
Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.
The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins
Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?
They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.
Delayed hypersensitivities ________.
include allergic contact dermatitis
Natural killer (NK) cells ________.
can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
Select the correct statement about antigens.
) One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.
Clonal selection of B cells ________.
) results in the formation of plasma cells
The primary immune response ________.
has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies
Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?
helper T cells
Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
type II diabetes
Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorders?
second exposure to an allergen
Select the correct statement about complement
) An adaptive immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target
Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?
IgM contains 10 binding sites.
) Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.
cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched
Which statement is true about T cells?
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.
Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?
What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?
) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
After becoming immunocompetent, the naive T cells and B cells are exported to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur.
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.
force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
) Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
) Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.
) The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
) For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.
) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
increase of carbon dioxide
Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
the ventral respiratory group
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants
) Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?
decrease in lactic acid levels
) Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?
blood pH adjustment
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?
Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
Which of the following determines lung compliance?
alveolar surface tension
Tidal volume is air ________.
exchanged during normal breathing
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
partial pressure gradient
Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
too little oxygen in the atmosphere
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
rising blood pressure
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
medulla and pons
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
Select the correct statement about the pharynx
The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx
The larynx contains ________.
the thyroid cartilage
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?
Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?
attached to the heme part of hemoglobin
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.
voluntary cortical control
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Gas emboli may occur because a ________.
) diver holds his breath upon ascent
Inspiratory capacity is ________.
the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
Which center is located in the pons?
pontine respirator group (PRG)
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
as the initiator of the cough reflex
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute
Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration
Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
number of red blood cells