chapter 14 medical terminology

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75 terms

blepharedema

swelling of the eyelid

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

blepharochalasis

hypertrophy of the skin of the eyelid

blepharoptosis

drooping of the upper eyelid

ectropion

turning outward of the eyelid, exposing the conjunctiva

entropion

turning inward of the eyelid toward the eye

chalazion

hardened swelling of a meibomian gland resulting from a blockage

hordeolum

stye, infection of one of the sebaceous glands of an eyelash

dacryoadenitis

inflammation of a lacrimal gland

dacryocystitis

inflammation of a lacrimal sac

epiphora

overflow of tears, excessive lacrimation

keratoconjunctivitis sicca

dryness and/or inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva due to inadequate tear production

xerophthalmia

dry eye, lack of adequate tear production to lubricate the eye

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva, commonly known as pinkeye, a highly contagious disorder

ophthalmia neonatorum

severe, purulent conjunctivitis in the newborn, usually due to gonorrheal or chlamydial infection

amblyopia

dull or dim vision due to disuse

diplopia

double vision

emmetropia

normal vision

esotropia

turning inward of one or both eyes

exophthalmia

protrusion of the eyeball from its orbit

exotropia

turning outward of one or both eyes

strabismus

general term for a lack of coordination between the eyes, usually due to a muscle weakness or paralysis

asthenopia

visual impairment due to weakness of ocular or ciliary muscle

astigmatism

malcurvature of the cornea leading to blurred vision

hyperopia

farsightedness

myopia

nearsightedness

presbyopia

progressive loss of elasticity of the lens

corneal ulcer

trauma to the outer covering of the eye

keratitis

inflammation of the cornea

keratoconus

malformation of the cornea that appears as a protrusion of the center of the cornea

anisocoria

condition of unequally sized pupils, sometimes due to pressure on the optic nerve as a result of trauma or lesion

hyphema

blood in the anterior chamber of the eye as a result of hemorrhage due to trauma

iritis

inflammation of the iris

uveitis

inflammation of the uvea

aphakia

condition of no lens, either congenital or acquired

cataract

progressive loss of transparency of the lens of the eye

glaucoma

abnormal intraocular pressure due to the obstruction of the outflow of the aqueous humor

synechia

adhesion of the iris to the lens and the cornea

achromatopsia

inpairment of color vision

age-related macular degeneration

progressive destruction of the macula, resulting in a loss of central vision

diabetic retinopathy

damage of the retina due to diabetes

hemianopsia

loss of half the visual field, often the result of a cerebrovascular accident

nyctalopia

inability to see well in dim light

retinal tear, retinal detachment

separation of the retina from the choroid layer

retinitis pigmentosa

hereditary degenerative disease marked by nyctalopia and a progressive loss of the visual field

scotoma

area of decresed vision in the visual field

nystagmus

involuntary, back-and-forth eye movements due to a disorer of the labyrinth of the ear and/or parts of the nervous system associated with rhythmic eye movements

optic neuritis

inflammation of the optic nerve resulting in blindness

intraocular melanoma

malignant tumor of the choroid, ciliary body, or iris that usually occurs in individuals in their 50s or 60s

retinoblastoma

an inherited condition present at birth that arises from embryonic retinal cells

amsler grid

test to assess central vision and to assist in the diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration

diopters

level of measurement that quantifies refraction errors

fluorescein angiography

procedure to confirm suspected retinal disease by injection of a fluorescein dye into the eye and use of a camera to record the vessels of the retina

fluorescein staining

use of a dye dropped into the eyes that allows differential staining of abnormalities of the cornea

gonioscopy

visualization of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye

ophthalmic ultrasonography

use of high-frequency sound waves to image the interior of the eye when opacities prevent other imaging techniques

ophthalmoscopy

any visual examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope

schirmer tear test

test to determine the amount of tear production

slit lamp examination

part of a routine eye examination

tonometry

measurement of intraocular pressure

visual acuity assessment

test of the clearness or sharpness of vision

visual field test

test to determine the area of physical space visible to an individual

blepharoplasty

surgical repair of the eyelids

blepharorrhaphy

suture of the eyelids

enucleation of the eye

removal of the entire eyeball

evisceration of the eye

removal of the contents of the eyeball, leaving the outer coat intact

exenteration of the eye

removal of the entire contents of the orbit

astigmatic keratotomy

corneal incision process that treats astigmatism by effecting a more rounded cornea

corneal incision procedure

any keratotomy procedure in which the cornea is cut to change shape, correcting a refractive error

flap procedure

any procedure in which a segment of the cornea is cut as a means of access to the structures below

laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis

flap procedure in which an excimer laser is used to remove material under the corneal flap

laser epithelial keratomileusis

flap procedure that differs from the LASIK procedure only the amount of tisue cut

photoablation

use of ultraviolent radiation to destroy and remove tissue from the cornea

photorefractive keratectomy

treatment for astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia that uses an excimer laser to reshape the cornea

radial keratotomy

corneal incision process that treats myopia by incising the cornea in a spokelike pattern

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