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Projections place world population by 2050 at

between 8 and 10 billion.

Children under the age of 15 represent about __________ percent of the population of developing countries.

30

3. Evidence presented in the text suggests that birthrates among developing countries are lower with

(a) higher growth.

4. The hidden momentum of population growth is caused by

(b) population age structure.

5. The world rate of population growth is closest to

(a) 1%.

6. In stage III of the demographic transition,

(a) the birth rate and the death rate are relatively low.

7. The Malthusian population trap assumes that

(c) fertility increases with per capita income.

8. Which of the following would most likely reduce the birthrate?

(a) public health improvements

9. The number of live births per 1000 people in the population per year is the

(d) crude birth rate.

10. Which of the following will cause the largest reduction in the birthrate?

(d) an increase in the opportunity cost of a woman's t

11. In recent years, the fertility rate in developing countries has been

declining

12. Evidence suggests that population growth has negative effects on

(e) all of the above.

13. The proportion of the total population aged 0-15 and over 65, is known as the

(a) dependency burden.

14. The rate of natural increase in the population of developing countries is most correlated with

(a) advances in developed country technology

15. Which of the following is a direct implication of the view that childbearing is an economic decision?

(d) Fertility should fall with improved opportunities for women to work in jobs outside the home.

16. Which of the following geographic regions is expected to experience the largest percentage increase in its population between 2003 and 2050?

Africa

17. At present, approximately how many years would it take for the world's population to double?

58

18. The Malthusian population trap model has been criticized on the grounds that it

(a) ignores the role of technological progress.

19. Approximately how many women were estimated to be "missing" in China?

(c) 44-50 million

1. An argument supporting promotion of the urban informal sector is

(a) the formal sector is incapable of providing enough employment

2. Rural-urban migrants differ from the rest of the rural population in that they are more likely to be

(a) well educated

3. Other things constant, the elimination of factor price distortions in developing countries would most likely

(a) decrease rural-urban migration.

4. The informal sector exhibits

(d) all of the above

5. If the rural wage is 4 and the formal urban wage rate is 10, there will be rural to urban migration if the formal urban unemployment rate is

(a) 50%

6. According to the United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Report, the annual growth in % of slum population from 1990-2001 has been the largest in:

(c) Sub-Saharan Africa

7. For what percentage of urban population growth is rural-urban migration responsible?

(a) between 35% and 60%.

8. According to UN projections, what proportion of the world's urban population will reside in the urban areas of developing countries by 2025?

(d) four fifths.

1. Developing countries have not benefited as much as expected from their higher education programs because of

(a) lack of program focus on the needs of the country.

2. Education of girls is a crucial development investment because

(d) all of the above.

3. It is important to place particular stress on the role of primary education in the development strategy because of

(d) all of the above.

4. Credential inflation results from

(c) the need to select from among qualified applicants in the modern sector.

5. The fact that developed countries have strong, widely attended university systems indicates that

(d) none of the above.

6. An individual's demand for education is most affected by

(a) direct and indirect costs of schooling.

7. Concentration of resources on higher rather than basic education in developing countries tends to lead to

(a) greater inequality.

8. The supply of public school places is determined by

(c) political processes, often unrelated to economic criteria.

9. Studies show that improved education of women in developing countries leads to

(a) lower infant mortality.

10. Human capital is best defined as

(c) human capacities that raise productivity.

11. Child labor is a widespread problem that applies primarily to children

(a) between the ages of 5 and 14.

12. The World Bank approach to combating child labor stresses

(b) tackling the sources of poverty.

13. The ILO approach to combating child labor stresses

(b) banning child labor.

14. As the number of years of schooling completed increases, the expected private return and private cost of education

(c) increase at different rates with expected private return increasing at a faster rate than private cost.

15. According to the 2005 UNDP Human Development Report child mortality (under age 5) has declined in all regions of the world except:

(b) Sub-Saharan Africa

16. According to the Regional HIV and AIDS Statistics data from WHO, which region of the world has the largest number of adults and children living with HIV?

(b) Sub-Saharan Africa

1. Crops produced entirely for the market are known as

(d) cash crops.

2. An agrarian system refers to

(a) the pattern of land ownership.

3. The primary goal of an agricultural extension service is to

(b) increase the yield per hectare.

4. Which of the following is an important factor in the success of agrarian land reform policies?

(c) farmer training programs.

5. It is important to place particular stress on the role of women in rural development programs because

(d) all of the above.

6. Sharecropping can be best understood as

(c) a compromise between peasant and landlord preferences.

7. A program through which new ideas, methods, and advice are offered to farmers to increase farm yields is known as

(a) agricultural extension.

8. In South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, about what share of the labor force works in agriculture?

(d) Two thirds.

9. In South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, about what share of output is contributed by agriculture?

(b) One fifth.

10. In which of these developing regions has food production per capita steadily fallen over the last quarter century?

(a) Africa.

11. In a world of perfect certainty, sharecropping would be less efficient than a farm owner working his own farm because

(a) sharecroppers receive only half of their marginal product.

12. During the 1990s, food production increased faster than population in all regions of the developing world except

(c) Sub-Saharan Africa.

13. The African agrarian system is characterized by

(d) shifting cultivation.

14. The system of land tenure in which tenant farmers pay a fixed share of their crop to landowners is called

(d) sharecropping.

15. Absentee landowners characterize the agrarian system of

(a) Asia.

1. A major cause of environmental degradation in developing countries is

(d) all of the above.

2. Sustainable development means

(c) meeting the present generation's needs without compromising the needs of future generations.

3. Which of the following environmental problems are largely caused by persistent poverty?

(d) All of the above.

4. Which of the following conditions is violated if there is a free rider problem?

(b) exclusivity

5. A major cause of environmental degradation in developing countries is

(b) poverty.

6. The "cost of rainforest preservation" can be lowered for developing countries by

(a) the development of alternative rainforest products.

7. Debt-for-nature swaps are most generally

(d) beneficial to all countries.

8. A resource that is publicly owned and allocated under a system of unrestricted access is known as

(c) a common property resource.

9. The portion of a country's overall assets that is directly related to the environment, such as forests and soil quality, is known as

(a) environmental capital.

10. The free rider problem is a situation in which

(b) one agent secures benefits that others pay for.

11. International resources shared by all countries such as oceans and air are known as

(a) global commons.

12. The annual income that can be consumed without diminishing the total capital assets of a nation is

(b) sustainable national income.

13. An example of a biomass fuel is

manure

14. Which of the following conditions does not characterize perfect property rights markets?

(c) sustainability.

15. In what way do developing countries make the largest contribution to the global concentrations of greenhouse gases?

(b) deforestation.

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