Chapter 22

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The Resipratory System

During inhalation______

the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.

From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?

Alveoli

Which statement is correct?

In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells

After blood becomes oxygenated,

it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.

Hemoglobin

is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen

What is ventilation-perfusion coupling?

matching the amount of gas reaching the alveoli to the blood flow in pulmonary capillaries

__________ has a greater partial pressure in the pulmonary capillaries than in the alveoli, so it diffuses into the __________.

CO2; alveoli

Which gas law explains why there is as much CO2 exchanged between the alveoli and blood as there is O2 exchanged, despite the fact that the partial pressure difference is so much smaller for CO2?

Henry's law

How would the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 change in an exercising muscle?

The partial pressure of O2 would decrease, and the partial pressure of CO2 would increase

Which way would O2 and CO2 diffuse during internal respiration?

O2 would diffuse into the cells, and CO2 would diffuse into the systemic capillaries

Internal and external respiration depends on several factors. Which of the following is NOT an important factor in gas exchange?

the molecular weight of the gas

Which of the following is the primary factor in oxygen attachment to, or release from, hemoglobin?

partial pressure of oxygen

What is the most powerful respiratory stimulant in a healthy person?

arterial blood carbon dioxide level

Patients with rhinitis often have "watery eyes" because ______.

the infection has caused inflammation of the nasolacrimal ducts

In pneumothorax, the lung collapses because ______.

intrapleural pressure is higher than intrapulmonary pressure

T/F: Nasal conchae mainly work on inhalation to warm and moisten air. They serve minor functions for exhalation.

False

T/F: The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall.

True

T/F: Tracheal obstruction is life threatening.

True

T/F: Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.

True

T/F: The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue).

True

T/F: The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.

True

T/F: The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell.

True

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.

ciliated mucous lining in the nose

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

alveoli

The larynx contains ________.

the thyroid cartilage

Select the correct statement about the pharynx

The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.

secrete surfactant

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.

force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

During pleurisy, the inflamed parietal pleura of one lung rubs against the inflamed ______.

visceral pleura of the same lung

The tissue(s) and/or cells that may be affected during laryngitis ______.

All of the listed responses are correct

The adenoids normally destroy pathogens because they contain ______.

lymphocytes

T/F: The alveoli are also known as alveolar sacs.

False

T/F: The structures within the respiratory system's conducting zone include the trachea and the paranasal sinuses

True

Systemic venous blood that is to be oxygenated in the lungs is delivered by the __________, and the __________ provide oxygenated systemic blood to lung tissue.

pulmonary arteries; bronchial arteries

Which of the following is NOT a function of the larynx?

to assist in taste sensation

Which of the following respiratory structures is more commonly known as the "throat"?

pharynx

Which of the following descriptions accurately describes Boyle's law?

The pressure of gas in your lungs is inversely proportional to the volume in your lungs.

Which muscles, when contracted, would increase the volume of air in the thoracic cavity?

diaphragm and external intercostals

Which pressure is the result of the natural tendency of the lungs to decrease their size (because of elasticity) and the opposing tendency of the thoracic wall to pull outward and enlarge the lungs?

intrapleural pressure

During an allergic reaction, which of the following would aid respiration?

epinephrine

If the transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lung?

lungs will collapse

T/F: The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.

False

T/F: The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.

True

Inspiratory capacity is ________.

the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?

internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.

inspiratory reserve

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.

vital capacity

Tidal volume is air ________.

exchanged during normal breathing

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?

the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

The relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by ________.

Boyle's law

Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?

the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

What are the components of TLC?

TV+IRV+ERV+RV

What are the components of Vital Capacity?

TV+IRV+ERV

What are the components of Fuctional Residual Capacity?

RV+ERV

What are the components of Inspiratory Capacity?

TV+IRV

In babies born prematurely, pulmonary surfactant may not be present in adequate amounts ______.

due to insufficient exocytosis in the type II alveolar cells

Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the least amount of CO2 transported in blood?

dissolved in plasma

Which muscles are activated during normal quiet inspiration?

diaphragm and external intercostal muscles

Which of the following pressure relationships best illustrates when inspiration will occur?

Ppul < Patm

Which of the following gives the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas?

Boyle's law

Which of the following pressures must remain negative to prevent lung collapse?

intrapleural pressure

Which of the following pressures rises and falls with the phases of breathing, but eventually equalizes with the atmospheric pressure?

intrapulmonary pressure

T/F: Dalton's law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.

True

T/F: Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.

True

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.

diffusion

Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

blood pH adjustment

The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is ________.

ventilation-perfusion coupling

A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for
survival by ________.

28 weeks

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.

Dalton's law

During pneumonia, the lungs become "waterlogged"; this means that within the alveoli there is an abnormal accumulation of ______.

interstitial fluid

T/F: Dalton's law of partial pressures states that when a gas is in contact with a liquid, that gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure.

False
Henery's Law

T/F: As carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more CO2 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ion to be generated (the Bohr effect).

False

T/F: The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase

False

What is the primary form in which carbon dioxide is carried in blood?

as a bicarbonate ion in plasma

Which of the following incorrectly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?

attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?

as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.

too little oxygen in the atmosphere

Which of the following counteracts the movement of bicarbonate ions from the RBC?

chloride shifting

Hypoxia can be caused by ______.

hyposecretion of erythropoietin

Which of the following qualifies as a fully saturated hemoglobin molecule?

hemoglobin is transporting four oxygen molecules

T/F: Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers.

True

What determines the respiratory rhythm in the body?

medullary respiratory centers

Gas emboli may occur because a ________.

diver holds his breath upon ascent

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?

rising blood pressure

Hypocapnia causes ______.

hypoxia

How will the lungs compensate for an acute rise in the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood?

Respiratory rate will increase.

Which of the following arterial blood levels is the most powerful respiratory stimulant?

rising CO2 levels

T/F: Labored breathing is termed dyspnea.

True

T/F: In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree.

False

Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer?

Kaposi's sarcoma

T/F: Emphysema is distinguished by permanent shrinkage of the alveoli.

False

Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?

The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?

Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta

Which of the following processes are unique to the respiratory system?

pulmonary ventilation and external respiration

T/F: Under certain conditions, the vocal folds act as a sphincter that prevents air passage.

True

If a red blood cell is 100% saturated, how many molecules of O2 are bound to it?

1 billion molecules of O2

From the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, hemoglobin is __________ when the partial pressure of oxygen is 40 mm Hg. Would this be in the lungs, inactive tissues, or active tissues?

75% saturated; in the inactive tissues

Predict which way exercise would shift the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Would this shift in the curve increase or decrease hemoglobin saturation?

The curve would shift to the right thus decreasing the hemoglobin saturation

How is the majority of CO2 transported in blood?

converted to and transported as bicarbonate ions

In the lungs, O2 loading facilitates CO2 unloading from hemoglobin. This is known as __________.

the Haldane effect

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