Beginning in 1519, the domination by force, of the peoples of southwest North America, Central America, and South America by Spain, imposing Spanish Culture upon these native peoples.
An Aztec city located at the present site of Mexico City.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) - a political party formed in Mexico in 1929, that despite corruption ruled (controlled) the Mexican Presidency and congress for 71 years until the election of Vicente Fox as president in 2000
people of mixed Spanish and native American heritage
a person with one white parent and one black parent or a person who has both black ancestry and white ancestry.
racial term for a person with mixed Amerindian and African heritage
factories in Mexico (often very close to the us border) that assemble imported materials into finished products that are then exported, mostly to the United States. These products include electronic equipment, clothing, and furniture. (Made economically viable due to NAFTA)
North American Free Trade Agrement - Trade agreement among the US, Mexico, and Canada, creating a zone of cooperation on trade and economic issues, reducing (and eventually eliminating ) import tariffs on manufactured goods.
Leaving one's homeland and migrating to another country Examples: Pilgrims coming to North America, Mexicans crossing (leaving) the border into the USA.
Entering / migrating into another country, making it your home. Mexicans who have made the USA their new home. (Unless you are a Native American, your parents, or grandparents, or great grand parents... someone who left another place to come to the USA)
a place from which important ideas spread
United Provinces of Central America
In 1821, Mexico declared its independence from Spain. In 1823, the Central American region declared their independence from Mexico, and by the 1830s, split into separate nations.
A man made series of canals and locks, built by the United States in the early 1900s, allowing ships pass from the Atlantic to Pacific oceans (or vice versa) without having to navigate around the tip of South America. The USA made a deal with Panama in 1903 to control a 10 mile wide strip of Panama to build the canal. The Carter administration in 1978, changed US policy and returned the canal to Panama effective in 1999.
music that began in Trinidad, combining elementsfrom Africa, Spain, and the Caribbean, accompanied by steel drums, guitars and improvised lyrics.
music developed in Jamaica in the 1960s. Many reggae songs deal with social problems and religion. African music, Caribbean music, and American music all feed into reggae. Bob marley is seen as the pioneer of reggae.
jobs which take place outside of official channels, without benefits, taxes, benefits, or protection for workers. Jobs include street vending, shining shoes and other individual activities.
descendants of people who came across a land bridge from Siberia to Alaska and eventually crossed the Isthmus of Panama into South America, where they built an advanced civilization.
Language of the Inca, eventually overshadowed by the Spanish language
Treaty of Tordesillas
A treaty, created by Pope Alexander VI, that divided lands in the New World between Spain and Portugal. The result gave present day Brazil to Portugal and the remaining lands to Spain. (At the time, no Europeans knew or understood the size to the land mass of the Americas.)
The most colorful feast day in Brazil. In Rio de Janerio, people in costumes ride on floats through the streets. (Somewhat similar to Mardi Gras in New Orleans)
a Brazilian dance with African influences
a martial art and dance that developed in Brazil from African origins. Angolans who were taken to Brazil by the Portuguese brought this martial art and dance with them.
desperately poor slums of Brazil