Psychology Test 2 (Book Practice Quizzes)

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working

The self-concept that you have in mind at a given time is referred to as a _________ self-concept.

dejection

According to Higgens, a discrepancy between the actual self and the ideal self is most likely to trigger the emotion of _____________.

interactions, temperament

Self-guide preference appear to be rooted in parent-child ____________ and individual's _____________.

social context

____________ affects self concept in the following ways:
-how people think and feel about others
-less self-conscious in some situations
-a situation can indirectly affect self-concept

individualism

______________ involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.

collectivist

Your friend Tyra has decided to postpone starting business school for two years in order to help her family operate their small hardware store during her dad's illness. She is exhibiting a characteristic behavior of persons from a(n) ________ culture.

causal

When interpreting the results of research on self-esteem, one must keep in mind that one cannot draw _________ conclusions regarding self-esteem based on the research.

sociometer theory

The ____________ suggest that self-esteem is a subjective measure of one's interpersonal popularity and success.

authoritarian

Ted's mother wears a t-shirt that says "Because I'm your mom, that's why!" She is usually critical of her son and his friends, and only rarely allows him to give his opinion in family decision-making. Ted's mom is exhibiting the traits associated with the ________ parenting style.

self-attributions

____________ are the inferences that people make about what causes their behavior.

pessimistic

People who attribute their setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors are exhibiting a ____________ explanatory style.

self-improvement

Advertisers of personal care products are tapping into the _______ motive.

situational factors

The tendency to attribute one's failures to ________________ is consistent with the self-serving bias.

self-efficacy

All of the following are sources of ____________:
-soliciting encouragement and advice from others
-mastering new skills
-watching others perform a skill one wants to learn

attribution

An __________ is an inference about the causes of behavior.

external

Explaining your friend's poor performance on a test by suggesting that the test was unfair exemplifies the ___________ type of attribution.

classroom

The best-known experiments on the self-fulfilling prophecy have been conducted in ____________ settings.

stereotypes

All of the following are reasons why ____________ persist:
-confirmation bias
-self-fulfilling prophecy
-cognitive functionality

stereotypes

The tendency for people to see what they expect to see helps to perpetuate _______________.

primacy effect

The fact that first impressions have a powerful influence on perceptions of others is most consistent with the concept of the _______________.

prejudice

___________ is defined as a negative attitude toward some group.

prejudice

All of the following are considered to be contributors to racial __________:
-the fundamental attribution error
-stereotyping
-defensive attribution

jigsaw classroom

An example of applying intergroup contact as a means for reducing prejudice is the "____________."

trustworthy

Persuasion is most likely to be successful when the source of the persuasive communication is perceived as _______________.

social pressure

Conformity occurs when people change their behavior in response to real or imagined __________________.

go along with

Asch found that group size had little influence on group conformity if just one accomplice failed to ____________ the rest of the group.

situational pressures

The important conclusion from Milgram's study of obedience is that ___________________ can cause good people to do bad things.

behave consistently

Researchers think that the reason the food in the door technique is effective is that people have a tendency to ___________________.

lowball technique

The ____________ involves getting someone to commit to an attractive deal before revealing its hidden costs.

decode

In interpersonal communication, speaker is to encode as receiver is to ____________.

nonverbal communication

When you and your friend make faces at eachother during a class lecture it is an example of ___________________.

public

According to Edward Hall, people who interact at distances of 12 feet and beyond are considered to be in the ________ distance zone.

emotions

Basic ___________ are designated as such because the facial expressions associated with them are recognized across world cultures.

status

Gender patterns in eye contact are most likely to be confounded by ___________.

kinesics

The study of communication through body movement is called _____________.

anxiety

Anna is speaking rapidly to Steve as she asks him out to lunch. Her paralanguage most likely conveys ________ in this situation.

emotion detector

_________________ is the most accurate description of the polygraph machine.

communication avoidance

_________________ is the most common response to communication apprehension.

ego conflict

____________ is the type of conflict that is the most difficult to manage.

avoidance

Lauren hates it when Eric leaves the cap off the toothpaste, but she's never told him this, because she doesn't want to "make a scene." Besides, she hopes he'll get better on his own. Lauren's behavior exemplifies which of the following styles of managing conflict?

competition

Which style of managing conflict tends to become a black and white, win or lose confrontation?

status

You're the boss. You have a relatively minor conflict with a subordinate. An effective way to manage this situation is to try to set the difference in __________ aside.

interpersonal

Collectivist societies place a higher value on ____________ harmony than assertiveness.

chronic

Cancer, heart disease, and stroke are all considered __________ diseases.

chronic diseases

The greatest threat to health in our society today is posed by _____________.

decreased

Studies of the immune system in humans have found that stress is related to ________ levels of immune activity.

correlational

Virtually all of the research on stress and physical health in humans is ________________.

smoking

___________has been shown to increase the risk of such diseases as lung cancer, arteriosclerosis, and emphysema.

15

Health risks after quitting smoking decline until they reach a normal level after about ____ years.

20

ypically, people are considered obese if their weight exceeds their ideal body weight by ________ percent.

energy

The main function of vitamins and minerals is to help release ________ from other foods.

exercise program

All of the following is good advice for devising an exercise program:
-look for an activity that you will find enjoyable
-exercise regularly without overdoing it
-increase your participation gradually

HIV

________ carriers often remain healthy and symptom-free for many years after they are infected.

communication

All of the following is considered a common barrier to effective provider-patient ____________:
-medical visits are very brief, allowing little time for discussion
-many providers use too much medical jargon
-some patients are evasive about their real concerns because they fear a serious diagnosis

tolerance

____________ involves progressive decrease in responsiveness to a drug with continued use.

barbiturates

Because he quit an addictive drug, Michael is experiencing vomiting, diarrhea, chills, and tremors. Michael is probably withdrawing from _____________.

heroin

The most significant narcotics problem in modern Western society is the use of ________.

hallucinogens

Use of hallucinogens is most likely to result in distortions in sensory and perceptual experience?

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